Définitions Codes de pays Geographic.org Profils des tribunaux


Abréviations: Ces informations sont incluses dans l'annexe A: Abréviations,
qui comprend toutes les abréviations et acronymes utilisés dans le Factbook, avec leur
extensions.


Acronymes: Un acronyme est une abréviation inventée à partir de la lettre initiale
de chaque mot successif dans un terme ou une phrase. En général, un acronyme composé uniquement
à partir de la première lettre des mots principaux dans la forme développée est rendu dans tous
lettres majuscules (OTAN de l'Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; une exception serait
ASEAN pour l'Association des nations de l'Asie du Sud-Est). En général, un acronyme composé de
plus que la première lettre des mots principaux dans la forme développée est rendue avec
seulement une lettre majuscule initiale (Comsat de Communications Satellite Corporation; un
l'exception serait le NAM du Mouvement non signé). Les formes hybrides sont parfois utilisées pour d
faire la distinction entre des termes initialement identiques (OMC: pour l'Organisation mondiale du commerce et
WToO pour l'Organisation mondiale du tourisme.)


Divisions administratives: Cette entrée donne généralement les nombres,
termes de désignation et divisions administratives de premier ordre approuvées par le
Conseil américain sur les noms géographiques (BGN). Changements qui ont été signalés mais pas encore
agi par BGN sont notés.


Pyramide des ages: Cette entrée fournit la répartition de la population en fonction de l'âge. Les informations sont incluses par sexe et par groupe d'âge comme suit: 0-14 ans (enfants), 15-24 ans (jeune âge de travailler), 25-54 ans (âge actif de pointe), 55-64 ans (âge de travailler mûr), 65 ans et plus (personnes âgées). La structure par âge d'une population influe sur les principaux problèmes socio-économiques d'une nation. Les pays à population jeune (pourcentage élevé de moins de 15 ans) doivent investir davantage dans les écoles, tandis que les pays à population plus âgée (pourcentage élevé de 65 ans et plus) doivent investir davantage dans le secteur de la santé. La structure par âge peut également être utilisée pour aider à prédire les problèmes politiques potentiels. Par exemple, la croissance rapide d'une population de jeunes adultes incapable de trouver un emploi peut conduire à des troubles.


Agriculture – produits: Cette entrée est un classement des principales cultures
et des produits en commençant par les plus importants.

Aéroports: Cette entrée donne le nombre total d'aéroports. La (les) piste (s)
peut être pavé (surfaces de béton ou d'asphalte) ou non pavé (herbe, terre, sable ou
gravier), mais doit être utilisable. Tous les aéroports ne disposent pas d'installations pour
ravitaillement, entretien ou contrôle du trafic aérien.


Aéroports – avec pistes goudronnées: Cette entrée donne le nombre total de
aéroports avec des pistes asphaltées (surfaces en béton ou en asphalte). Pour les aéroports avec
plus d'une piste, seule la piste la plus longue est incluse selon le
suivant cinq groupes – (1) sur 3047 m, (2) 2438 à 3047 m, (3) 1524 à
2437 m, (4) 914 à 1523 m, et (5) moins de 914 m. Seuls les aéroports avec utilisables
les pistes sont incluses dans cette liste. Tous les aéroports ne disposent pas d'installations pour
ravitaillement, entretien ou contrôle du trafic aérien.


Aéroports – avec des pistes non goudronnées: Cette entrée donne le nombre total de
les aéroports avec des pistes non goudronnées (gazon, terre, sable ou gravier). Pour
aéroports avec plus d'une piste, seule la plus longue piste est incluse
selon les cinq groupes suivants – (1) sur 3047 m, (2) 2438 à 3047 m,
(3) 1524 à 2437 m, (4) 914 à 1523 m et (5) moins de 914 m. Seuls les aéroports
avec des pistes utilisables sont inclus dans cette liste. Tous les aéroports n'ont pas
des installations de ravitaillement, de maintenance ou de contrôle du trafic aérien.


Annexes: Cette section comprend Factbook– matériel connexe par
sujet.


Zone: Cette entrée comprend trois sous-champs. Superficie totale est le
somme de toutes les zones terrestres et aquatiques délimitées par des frontières internationales et / ou
littoraux. Aire d'atterrissage est l'agrégat de toutes les surfaces délimitées par
frontières internationales et / ou littoraux, à l'exclusion des plans d'eau intérieurs
(lacs, réservoirs, rivières). Espace aquatique est la somme de toutes les surfaces d'eau
délimité par des frontières internationales et / ou des côtes, y compris les eaux intérieures
corps (lacs, réservoirs, rivières).


Superficie – comparatif: Cette entrée fournit une comparaison de zone basée sur
équivalents de superficie totale. La plupart des entités sont comparées à l'ensemble des États-Unis ou à l'un des
les 50 états basés sur des mesures de surface (révisées en 1990) fournies par les États-Unis
Bureau du recensement. Les plus petites entités sont comparées à Washington, DC (178
km2, 69 milles carrés) ou The Mall à Washington, DC (0,59 km2, 0,23 milles carrés, 146
acres).


Fond: Cette entrée met généralement en évidence les événements historiques majeurs et
problèmes actuels et peut inclure une déclaration sur une ou deux tendances futures clés.


Taux de natalité: Cette entrée donne le nombre annuel moyen de naissances
pendant un an pour 1 000 personnes dans la population en milieu d'année; aussi connu sous le nom
taux brut de natalité. Le taux de natalité est généralement le facteur dominant pour déterminer
le taux de croissance démographique. Cela dépend à la fois du niveau de fertilité et de la
structure par âge de la population.


Haut débit – abonnements fixes: Cette entrée donne le nombre total d'abonnements au haut débit fixe, ainsi que le nombre d'abonnements pour 100 habitants. Le haut débit fixe est une connexion filaire physique à Internet (par exemple, câble coaxial, fibre optique) à des vitesses égales ou supérieures à 256 kilobits / seconde (256 kbit / s).


Médias de diffusion: Cette entrée fournit des informations sur le nombre approximatif de chaînes de télévision et de radio publiques et privées dans un pays,
ainsi que des informations de base sur la disponibilité des services de télévision par satellite et par câble.


Budget: Cette entrée comprend les revenus, les dépenses totales et le capital
dépenses. Ces chiffres sont calculés sur la base du taux de change, c'est-à-dire
ne pas en termes de parité de pouvoir d'achat (PPA).


Excédent budgétaire (+) ou déficit (-): Cette entrée enregistre la différence entre les recettes et les dépenses du gouvernement national, exprimée en pourcentage du PIB.
Un nombre positif (+) indique que les recettes ont dépassé les dépenses (un excédent budgétaire), tandis qu'un nombre négatif (-) indique l'inverse (un déficit budgétaire).
La normalisation des données, en divisant le solde budgétaire par le PIB, permet des comparaisons faciles entre les pays et indique si un gouvernement national épargne ou emprunte de l'argent.
Les pays ayant des déficits budgétaires élevés (par rapport à leur PIB) ont généralement plus de difficultés à mobiliser des fonds pour financer leurs dépenses que ceux ayant des déficits plus faibles.


Capitale: Cette entrée donne l'emplacement du siège du gouvernement.


Émissions de dioxyde de carbone liées à la consommation d'énergie: Cette entrée est la quantité totale de dioxyde de carbone, mesurée en tonnes métriques,
libéré par la combustion de combustibles fossiles dans le processus de production et de consommation d'énergie.


Taux d'escompte de la banque centrale: Cette entrée fournit l'intérêt annualisé
évaluer les frais de la banque centrale d'un pays pour les prêts aux banques commerciales et dépositaires
pour faire face à des pénuries temporaires de fonds.


Travail des enfants – enfants âgés de 5 à 14 ans: Cette entrée donne le pourcentage d'enfants âgés de 5 à 14 ans (ou la tranche d'âge spécifiée) engagés dans le travail des enfants.
Nous définissons le «travail des enfants» comme un travail qui prive les enfants de leur enfance, de leur potentiel et de leur dignité, et qui nuit au développement physique et mental.
Il fait référence au travail qui est mentalement, physiquement, socialement ou moralement dangereux et nuisible aux enfants.
Un tel travail peut les priver de la possibilité d'aller à l'école, les obliger à quitter l'école prématurément ou les obliger à combiner la fréquentation scolaire avec un travail excessivement long et pénible.
Dans ses formes les plus extrêmes, le travail des enfants implique que les enfants soient réduits en esclavage, séparés de leur famille,
exposés à de graves risques et maladies, et / ou laissés à eux-mêmes dans les rues des grandes villes – souvent à un très jeune âge.


Enfants de moins de 5 ans en insuffisance pondérale: Cette entrée donne le pourcentage d'enfants de moins de cinq ans considérés comme souffrant d'insuffisance pondérale.
Un poids insuffisant signifie que le poids pour l'âge est d'environ 2 kg en dessous de la norme à l'âge d'un an, de 3 kg en dessous de la norme pour les deux et trois ans et de 4 kg en dessous de la norme pour les quatre et cinq ans.
Cette statistique est un indicateur de l'état nutritionnel d'une communauté.
Les enfants qui souffrent d'un retard de croissance en raison d'une mauvaise alimentation et / ou d'infections récurrentes ont tendance à courir un plus grand risque de souffrir de maladie et de décès.


Citoyenneté: Cette entrée fournit des informations relatives à l'acquisition et à l'exercice de la citoyenneté; il comprend quatre sous-champs:
citoyenneté par naissance décrit l'acquisition de la citoyenneté basée sur le lieu de naissance, connue sous le nom de Jus soli, quelle que soit la citoyenneté des parents.
citoyenneté par filiation décrit uniquement l'acquisition de la citoyenneté fondée sur le principe du jus sanguinis, ou par filiation, lorsqu'un parent au moins est citoyen de l'État et qu'il n'est pas nécessaire d'être né dans les limites territoriales de l'État. La majorité des pays adhèrent à cette pratique. Dans certains cas, la citoyenneté est conférée exclusivement par le père ou la mère.
double nationalité reconnu indique si un État autorise un citoyen à détenir simultanément la citoyenneté d'un autre État. De nombreux États n'autorisent pas la double citoyenneté et l'acquisition volontaire de la citoyenneté dans un autre pays est un motif de révocation de la citoyenneté. Le fait de détenir la double nationalité oblige un individu à être légalement obligé envers plus d'un État et peut annuler les protections consulaires normales accordées aux citoyens en dehors de leur pays d'origine.
exigence de résidence pour la naturalisation énumère la durée pendant laquelle un demandeur est tenu de vivre dans un État avant de demander la naturalisation. Dans la plupart des pays, la citoyenneté peut être acquise par le biais du processus légal de naturalisation. Les conditions de naturalisation varient d'un État à l'autre, mais comprennent généralement l'absence de casier judiciaire, une bonne santé, des ressources économiques et une période de résidence autorisée dans l'État. Cette période peut varier énormément d'un État à l'autre et est souvent utilisée pour rendre l'acquisition de la citoyenneté difficile, voire impossible.


Préfixe du code de pays pour l'immatriculation des aéronefs civils: Cette entrée fournit le code alphanumérique à un ou deux caractères indiquant la nationalité de l'aéronef civil. L'article 20 de la Convention relative à l'aviation civile internationale (Convention de Chicago), signée en 1944, exige que tous les aéronefs engagés dans la navigation aérienne internationale portent les marques de nationalité appropriées. Le numéro d'immatriculation de l'aéronef se compose de deux parties: un préfixe composé d'un code alphanumérique à un ou deux caractères indiquant la nationalité et un suffixe d'immatriculation de un à cinq caractères pour l'aéronef en question. Les codes de préfixe sont basés sur les indicatifs d'appel radio attribués par l'Union internationale des télécommunications (UIT) à chaque pays. Depuis 1947, l'Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale (OACI) gère les normes de code et leur attribution.


Climat: Cette entrée comprend une brève description des régimes météorologiques typiques tout au long de l'année.


Littoral: Cette entrée donne la longueur totale de la frontière entre la zone terrestre (y compris les îles) et la mer.


Taux préférentiel des banques commerciales: Cette entrée fournit une moyenne simple des taux d'intérêt annualisés que les banques commerciales appliquent sur les nouveaux prêts, libellés dans la monnaie nationale, à leurs clients les plus solvables.


Communications: Cette catégorie traite des moyens d'échanger des informations et comprend les entrées des fournisseurs de services de téléphonie, de radio, de télévision et Internet.


Communications – remarque: Cette entrée comprend diverses informations de communication importantes non incluses ailleurs.


Constitution: Cette entrée comprend les dates d'adoption, les révisions et les modifications majeures.


Taux de prévalence contraceptive: Ce champ donne le pourcentage de femmes en âge de procréer (15-49 ans) qui sont mariées ou en union et utilisent, ou dont le partenaire sexuel utilise, une méthode de contraception selon la date des données disponibles les plus récentes. Le taux de prévalence contraceptive est un indicateur des services de santé, du développement et de l'autonomisation des femmes. Il est également utile pour comprendre les tendances passées, présentes et futures de la fécondité, en particulier dans les pays en développement.


Carte du pays: La plupart des versions du Factbook fournir une carte du pays en couleur. Les cartes ont été produites à partir des meilleures informations disponibles au moment de la préparation. Les noms et / ou les limites peuvent avoir changé par la suite.


Nom du pays: Cette entrée comprend toutes les formes du nom du pays
approuvé par le US Board on Geographic Names (l'Italie est utilisée comme exemple):
forme longue conventionnelle (République italienne), forme courte conventionnelle
(Italie), forme longue locale (Repubblica Italiana), forme courte locale
(Italie), ancien (Royaume d'Italie), ainsi que le abréviation.
Voir aussi le Terminologie Remarque.


Pétrole brut – consommation: Cette entrée est le pétrole total consommé en barils par
jour (bbl / jour). L'écart entre la quantité d'huile produite et / ou importée
et la quantité consommée et / ou exportée est due à l’omission de variations de stock,
gains de raffinerie et autres facteurs de complication.


Pétrole brut – exportations: Cette entrée est le pétrole total exporté en barils par jour (bbl / jour),
y compris le pétrole brut et les produits pétroliers.


Pétrole brut – importations: Cette entrée est le total du pétrole importé en barils par jour (bbl / jour),
y compris le pétrole brut et les produits pétroliers.


Pétrole brut – production: Cette entrée est le pétrole total produit en barils par jour
(bbl / jour). L'écart entre la quantité d'huile produite et / ou importée et
la quantité consommée et / ou exportée est due à l'omission de changements de stock, raffinerie
gains et autres facteurs de complication.


Pétrole brut – réserves prouvées: Cette entrée est le stock de réserves prouvées de brut
pétrole en barils (bbl). Les réserves prouvées sont les quantités de pétrole qui,
par l'analyse des données géologiques et d'ingénierie, peut être estimé avec un degré élevé
de confiance pour être commercialement récupérable à partir d'une date donnée, à partir de
réservoirs et dans les conditions économiques actuelles.


Devise: Cette entrée identifie le moyen d'échange national et
sa sous-unité de base.


Solde du compte courant: Cette entrée enregistre le commerce net d'un pays en
les biens et services, plus les bénéfices nets provenant des loyers, des intérêts, des bénéfices et des dividendes,
et les paiements de transfert nets (tels que les fonds de pension et les envois de fonds des travailleurs) vers et depuis
le reste du monde pendant la période spécifiée. Ces chiffres sont calculés sur
sur une base de taux de change, c'est-à-dire pas en termes de parité de pouvoir d'achat (PPA).


Code de données: Cette entrée donne le digraphe officiel du gouvernement américain qui
identifie précisément chaque entité terrestre sans chevauchement, duplication ou
omission. AF, par exemple, est le code de données pour l'Afghanistan. Ces deux lettres
l'indicatif de pays est un élément de données géopolitique normalisé promulgué dans le
Publication des normes fédérales de traitement de l'information (FIPS) 10-4 par le
Institut national des normes et de la technologie du département américain du commerce
et mis à jour par le Bureau du géographe et des problèmes mondiaux aux États-Unis
Département d'État. Le code de données est utilisé pour éliminer la confusion et
incompatibilité dans la collecte, le traitement et la diffusion des
des données spécifiques à la zone et est particulièrement utile pour échanger des données entre
bases de données. CODES renvoie à divers codes de données de pays et
Annexe E: Renvoie divers codes de données hydrographiques.


Codes de données – pays: Ces informations sont présentées dans
Annexe D:
Liste de références croisées des codes de données de pays
qui comprend les États-Unis
Les codes FIPS (Federal Information Processing Standards) approuvés par le gouvernement,
Codes de l'Organisation internationale de normalisation (ISO) et codes Internet
pour les entités foncières.


Codes de données – hydrographiques: Ces informations sont présentées dans
Annexe E:
Liste de références croisées des codes de données hydrographiques
qui comprend le
Codes de l'Organisation hydrographique internationale (OHI), carte aéronautique et
Centre d'information (ACIC; fait désormais partie de l'Agence nationale d'imagerie et de cartographie
ou NIMA) et les codes de la Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) pour les
entités. Le gouvernement américain n'a pas encore approuvé de norme pour les
codes de données similaires à la norme FIPS 10-4 pour les codes de données de pays.


Date de l'information: En général, informations disponibles au 1er janvier
2000, a été utilisé dans la préparation de cette édition.


Taux de mortalité: Cette entrée donne le nombre annuel moyen de décès
pendant un an pour 1 000 habitants en milieu d'année; également connu sous le nom de taux de mortalité brut.
Le taux de mortalité, alors qu'il n'est qu'un indicateur approximatif de la situation de mortalité dans un
pays, indique avec précision l’impact actuel de la mortalité sur la croissance démographique.
Cet indicateur est significativement affecté par la répartition par âge, et la plupart des pays
affichera à terme une augmentation du taux de mortalité global, malgré la
baisse de la mortalité à tous les âges, car la baisse de la fécondité entraîne un vieillissement
population.


Dette – extérieure: Cette entrée donne le montant total des
obligations financières.


Profil démographique: Cette entrée décrit les principales caractéristiques et tendances démographiques d'un pays et la manière dont elles varient entre les sous-populations régionales, ethniques et socio-économiques. Certains des sujets abordés sont la structure par âge de la population, la fécondité, la santé, la mortalité, la pauvreté, l'éducation et la migration.


Rapports de dépendance: Les taux de dépendance sont une mesure de la structure par âge d'une population. Ils rapportent le nombre d'individus susceptibles d'être économiquement «dépendants» du soutien d'autrui. Les taux de dépendance comparent le rapport des jeunes (de 0 à 14 ans) et des personnes âgées (de 65 ans et plus) au nombre de personnes en âge de travailler (de 15 à 64 ans). Les changements dans le ratio de dépendance donnent une indication des besoins potentiels de soutien social résultant de changements dans la structure par âge de la population. À mesure que les niveaux de fécondité diminuent, le taux de dépendance diminue initialement parce que la proportion de jeunes diminue tandis que la proportion de la population en âge de travailler augmente. À mesure que les niveaux de fécondité continuent de baisser, les taux de dépendance finissent par augmenter car la proportion de la population en âge de travailler commence à baisser et la proportion de personnes âgées continue d'augmenter.

rapport de dépendance total – Le ratio de dépendance totale est le rapport de la population jeune (0-14 ans) et de la population âgée (65 ans et plus) combinée pour 100 personnes en âge de travailler (15-64 ans).
Un taux de dépendance total élevé indique que la population en âge de travailler et l'économie dans son ensemble sont confrontées à un plus grand fardeau pour soutenir
et fournir des services sociaux aux jeunes et aux personnes âgées, qui sont souvent économiquement dépendantes.

ratio de dépendance des jeunes – Le ratio de dépendance des jeunes est le ratio de la population de jeunes (de 0 à 14 ans) pour 100 personnes en âge de travailler (de 15 à 64 ans).
Un taux de dépendance des jeunes élevé indique qu'il faut investir davantage dans la scolarisation et d'autres services pour les enfants.

ratio de dépendance des personnes âgées – Le ratio de dépendance des personnes âgées est le rapport de la population âgée (65 ans et plus) pour 100 personnes en âge de travailler (15-64 ans).
L'augmentation du taux de dépendance des personnes âgées a exercé une pression supplémentaire sur les gouvernements pour qu'ils financent les retraites et les soins de santé.

rapport de soutien potentiel – Le ratio de soutien potentiel est le nombre de personnes en âge de travailler (15 à 64 ans) pour une personne âgée (65 ans et plus).
À mesure que la population vieillit, le ratio de soutien potentiel a tendance à baisser, ce qui signifie qu'il y a moins de travailleurs potentiels pour soutenir les personnes âgées.


Statut de dépendance: Cette entrée décrit la relation formelle
entre une entité non indépendante particulière et un État indépendant.


Zones dépendantes: Cette entrée contient une liste alphabétique de tous
entités non indépendantes associées d'une manière ou d'une autre à un indépendant particulier
Etat.


Représentation diplomatique: Le gouvernement américain a des relations diplomatiques
avec 184 États indépendants, dont 181 des 188 membres de l'ONU (hors ONU
les membres sont le Bhoutan, Cuba, l'Iran, l'Irak, la Corée du Nord, l'ex-Yougoslavie et les États-Unis
lui-même). De plus, les États-Unis entretiennent des relations diplomatiques avec 3 États indépendants
qui ne font pas partie des Nations Unies – Saint-Siège, Suisse et Tuvalu.


Représentation diplomatique des États-Unis: Cette entrée comprend le
chef de mission, ambassade adresse, Adresse postale,
Téléphone numéro, FAX numéro, succursale Emplacements,
consulat général emplacements, et Consulat Emplacements.


Représentation diplomatique aux États-Unis: Cette entrée comprend le chef
de
l'étranger mission, chancellerie adresse, Téléphone
numéro, FAX numéro, consulat général Emplacements, Consulat
Emplacements, consulat général honoraire emplacements, et honoraire
Consulat
Emplacements.


Litiges – internationaux: Cette entrée comprend une grande variété de
situations qui vont des différends frontaliers bilatéraux traditionnels aux
réclamations d'une sorte ou d'une autre. Informations concernant les litiges internationaux
les frontières terrestres et maritimes ont été examinées par le Département américain de
État. Les références à d'autres situations impliquant des frontières ou des frontières peuvent également
inclus, comme les conflits de ressources, les questions géopolitiques ou irrédentiste
questions; cependant, l'inclusion ne constitue pas nécessairement une acceptation officielle
ou reconnaissance par le gouvernement américain.


Répartition du revenu familial – indice de Gini: Cet indice mesure le degré d'inégalité dans la distribution du revenu familial dans un pays.
L'indice est calculé à partir de la courbe de Lorenz, dans laquelle le revenu familial cumulé est représenté par rapport au nombre de familles classées des plus pauvres aux plus riches.
L'indice est le rapport de (a) l'aire entre la courbe de Lorenz d'un pays et la ligne d'aide à 45 degrés sur (b) toute l'aire triangulaire sous la ligne à 45 degrés.
Plus la distribution des revenus d'un pays est presque égale, plus sa courbe de Lorenz est proche de la ligne de 45 degrés et plus son indice de Gini est bas, par exemple un pays scandinave avec un indice de 25.
Plus la distribution des revenus d'un pays est inégale, plus sa courbe de Lorenz est éloignée de la ligne de 45 degrés et plus son indice de Gini est élevé, par exemple, un pays subsaharienne avec un indice de 50.
Si le revenu était distribué avec une égalité parfaite, la courbe de Lorenz coïnciderait avec la ligne à 45 degrés et l'indice serait nul;
si le revenu était distribué avec une inégalité parfaite, la courbe de Lorenz coïnciderait avec l'axe horizontal et l'axe vertical droit et l'indice serait de 100.


Source d'eau potable: Cette entrée fournit des informations sur l'accès à des sources d'eau potable améliorées ou non disponibles pour des segments de la population d'un pays.
Eau potable améliorée – utilisation de l'une des sources suivantes: eau courante dans le logement, la cour ou la parcelle; robinet public ou borne fontaine; puits tubulaire ou forage; protégé bien creusé; ressort protégé;
ou collecte des eaux pluviales. eau potable non améliorée – utilisation de l'une des sources suivantes: puits creusé non protégé; ressort non protégé; chariot avec petit réservoir ou tambour; camion citerne;
les eaux de surface, qui comprennent les rivières, les barrages, les lacs, les étangs, les ruisseaux, les canaux ou les canaux d'irrigation; ou de l'eau en bouteille.


Aide économique – donateur: Cette entrée fait référence au développement officiel net
assistance (APD) des pays de l'OCDE aux pays en développement et aux
organisations. L'APD est définie comme une assistance financière concessionnelle en
caractère, a pour objectif principal de promouvoir le développement économique et le bien-être des
les pays les moins avancés (PMA), et contient un élément don d'au moins
25%. L'entrée ne couvre pas les autres flux officiels (OOF) ou les flux privés.


Aide économique – bénéficiaire: Cette entrée, qui est soumise à des
problèmes de définition et de couverture statistique, se réfère à l'afflux net de
Financement officiel du développement (FDAL) aux pays bénéficiaires. La figure comprend
assistance de la Banque mondiale, du FMI et d'autres organisations internationales
et des donateurs nationaux individuels. Les engagements formels d'aide sont inclus dans le
Les données. Les subventions accordées par des organisations privées sont omises des données. L'aide entre
diverses formes, y compris des subventions et des prêts purs et simples. L'entrée est donc le
différence entre les nouvelles entrées et les remboursements.


Économie: Cette catégorie comprend les entrées traitant de la taille,
le développement et la gestion des ressources productives, c'est-à-dire la terre, la main-d'œuvre et
Capitale.


Économie – aperçu: Cette entrée décrit brièvement le type d'économie,
y compris le degré d'orientation du marché, le niveau de développement économique,
les ressources naturelles les plus importantes et les domaines de spécialisation uniques. Il
caractérise également les événements économiques majeurs et les changements de politique dans les plus récents
12 mois et peut inclure une déclaration sur un ou deux
les tendances.


Dépenses d'éducation: Cette entrée fournit les dépenses publiques d'éducation en pourcentage du PIB.


Électricité – accès: Cette entrée fournit des informations sur l'accès à l'électricité. Les données d'électrification – collectées à partir de rapports industriels, d'enquêtes nationales et de sources internationales – se composent de quatre sous-champs. La population sans électricité fournit une estimation du nombre de citoyens qui n'ont pas accès à l'électricité. Électrification – la population totale est le pourcentage de la population totale d'un pays ayant accès à l'électricité, l'électrification – les zones urbaines sont le pourcentage de la population urbaine d'un pays ayant accès à l'électricité, tandis que l'électrification – les zones rurales sont le pourcentage de la population rurale d'un pays ayant accès à l'électricité. électricité. En raison des différences de définitions et de méthodologie provenant de différentes sources, la qualité des données peut varier d'un pays à l'autre.


La consommation d'électricité: Cette entrée se compose de l'électricité totale
généré annuellement plus les importations et moins les exportations, exprimés en kilowattheures.
L'écart entre la quantité d'électricité produite et / ou importée et
la quantité consommée et / ou exportée est comptabilisée comme une perte de transmission et
Distribution.


Électricité – exportations: Cette entrée correspond au total de l'électricité exportée en kilowattheures.


Électricité – à partir de combustibles fossiles: Cette entrée mesure la capacité des centrales qui produisent de l'électricité en brûlant des combustibles fossiles (comme le charbon, les produits pétroliers et le gaz naturel),
exprimé en pourcentage de la capacité de production totale du pays.


Électricité – provenant de centrales hydroélectriques: Cette entrée mesure la capacité des centrales qui produisent de l'électricité par des turbines à eau,
exprimé en pourcentage de la capacité de production totale du pays.


Électricité – à partir de combustibles nucléaires: Cette entrée mesure la capacité des centrales qui produisent de l'électricité par désintégration radioactive du combustible nucléaire,
exprimé en pourcentage de la capacité de production totale du pays.


Électricité – provenant d'autres sources renouvelables: Cette entrée mesure la capacité des centrales qui produisent de l'électricité en utilisant des sources d'énergie renouvelables autres que l'hydroélectricité
(y compris, par exemple, le vent, les vagues, le solaire et la géothermie), exprimé en pourcentage de la capacité de production totale du pays.


Électricité – importations: Cette entrée correspond au total de l'électricité importée en
kilowattheures.


Électricité – capacité de production installée: Cette entrée correspond à la capacité totale des générateurs actuellement installés, exprimée en kilowatts (kW), pour produire de l'électricité.
Un générateur de 10 kilowatts (kW) produira 10 kilowattheures (kWh) d'électricité s'il fonctionne en continu pendant une heure.


Production d'électricité: Cette entrée est l'électricité annuelle
généré exprimé en kilowattheures. L'écart entre le montant de
l'électricité produite et / ou importée et la quantité consommée et / ou exportée est
comptabilisé comme une perte de transport et de distribution.


Élévation: Cette entrée comprend à la fois l'élévation moyenne et les extrêmes d'élévation.


Électricité – production par source: Cette entrée indique le
part en pourcentage de la production annuelle d'électricité de chaque source d'énergie. Ces
sont les combustibles fossiles, hydroélectriques, nucléaires et autres (solaire, géothermique et éolien).


Extrêmes d'élévation: Cette entrée comprend à la fois le le point le plus haut
et le le point le plus bas.


Entités: Certains des états indépendants, dépendances, zones de
souveraineté spéciale, et les gouvernements inclus dans cette publication ne sont pas
indépendant, et d'autres ne sont pas officiellement reconnus par le gouvernement américain.
«État indépendant» fait référence à un peuple politiquement organisé en souverain
État avec un territoire défini. "Dépendances" et "zones spéciales
souveraineté "désigne une large catégorie d'entités politiques associées
en quelque sorte avec un État indépendant. Noms de "pays" utilisés dans le tableau des
contenu ou pour les en-têtes de page sont généralement les noms abrégés approuvés par
le US Board on Geographic Names et peut inclure des États indépendants,
dépendances et zones de souveraineté spéciale, ou autres entités géographiques.
Il y a un total de 267 entités géographiques distinctes dans Le monde
Factbook
qui peuvent être classés comme suit:

ÉTATS INDÉPENDANTS

191 Afghanistan, Albanie, Algérie, Andorre, Angola, Antigua
et Barbuda, Argentine, Arménie, Australie, Autriche, Azerbaïdjan,
Bahamas, Bahreïn, Bangladesh, Barbade, Biélorussie, Belgique, Belize, Bénin,
Bhoutan, Bolivie, Bosnie-Herzégovine, Botswana, Brésil, Brunei,
Bulgarie, Burkina Faso, Birmanie, Burundi, Cambodge, Cameroun, Canada, Cap
Verde, République centrafricaine, Tchad, Chili, Chine, Colombie, Comores,
République démocratique du Congo, République du Congo, Costa Rica, Côte
d'Ivoire, Croatie, Cuba, Chypre, République tchèque, Danemark, Djibouti,
Dominique, République dominicaine, Équateur, Égypte, El Salvador, Équatorial
Guinée, Érythrée, Estonie, Éthiopie, Fidji, Finlande, France, Gabon, Le
Gambie, Géorgie, Allemagne, Ghana, Grèce, Grenade, Guatemala, Guinée,
Guinée-Bissau, Guyane, Haïti, Saint-Siège, Honduras, Hongrie, Islande, Inde,
Indonésie, Iran, Irak, Irlande, Israël, Italie, Jamaïque, Japon, Jordanie,
Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kiribati, Corée du Nord, Corée du Sud, Koweït, Kirghizistan,
Laos, Lettonie, Liban, Lesotho, Libéria, Libye, Liechtenstein, Lituanie,
Luxembourg, ancienne République yougoslave de Macédoine, Madagascar, Malawi,
Malaisie, Maldives, Mali, Malte, Iles Marshall, Mauritanie, Maurice,
Mexique, États fédérés de Micronésie, Moldavie, Monaco, Mongolie,
Maroc, Mozambique, Namibie, Nauru, Népal, Pays-Bas, NZ, Nicaragua,
Niger, Nigéria, Norvège, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée,
Paraguay, Pérou, Philippines, Pologne, Portugal, Qatar, Roumanie, Russie,
Rwanda, Saint-Kitts-et-Nevis, Sainte-Lucie, Saint-Vincent-et-
Grenadines, Samoa, Saint-Marin, Sao Tomé-et-Principe, Arabie saoudite,
Sénégal, Serbie et Monténégro, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapour,
Slovaquie, Slovénie, Iles Salomon, Somalie, Afrique du Sud, Espagne, Sri
Lanka, Soudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Suède, Suisse, Syrie, Tadjikistan,
Tanzanie, Thaïlande, Togo, Tonga, Trinité-et-Tobago, Tunisie, Turquie,
Turkménistan, Tuvalu, Ouganda, Ukraine, Emirats Arabes Unis, Royaume-Uni, États-Unis, Uruguay, Ouzbékistan,
Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Yémen, Zambie, Zimbabwe

AUTRE
1
Taïwan

DÉPENDANCES ET DOMAINES DE
SOUVERAINETÉ SPÉCIALE

6 Australie – îles Ashmore et Cartier, île Christmas,
Îles Cocos (Keeling), îles de la mer de Corail, île Heard et McDonald
Îles, Île Norfolk

2 Chine – Hong Kong, Macao

2 Danemark – Iles Féroé, Groenland

16 France – Bassas da India, Clipperton
Island, Europa Island, Guyane française, Polynésie française, Sud de la France
et terres antarctiques, îles Glorioso, Guadeloupe, île Juan de Nova,
Martinique, Mayotte, Nouvelle Calédonie, Réunion, Saint Pierre et Miquelon,
Île Tromelin, Wallis et Futuna

2 Pays-Bas – Aruba, Antilles néerlandaises

3 Nouvelle-Zélande – Îles Cook, Niue, Tokelau

3 Norvège – Île Bouvet, Jan Mayen,
Svalbard

15 Royaume-Uni – Anguilla, Bermudes, Territoire britannique de l'océan Indien,
Îles Vierges britanniques, îles Caïmans, îles Falkland, Gibraltar,
Guernesey, Jersey, île de Man, Montserrat, îles Pitcairn, Sainte-Hélène,
Géorgie du Sud et îles Sandwich du Sud, îles Turques et Caïques
14 États-Unis – Samoa américaines, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island,
Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa
Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin
Islands, Wake Island

MISCELLANEOUS

6    Antarctica, Gaza Strip, Paracel Islands,
Spratly Islands, West Bank, Western Sahara

OTHER ENTITIES

5    oceans – Arctic Ocean, Atlantic Ocean,
Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Southern Ocean

1    World

267  total


Environment – current issues: This entry lists the most pressing and
important environmental problems. The following terms and abbreviations are used
throughout the entry:

acidification – the lowering of soil and water pH due to acid
precipitation and deposition; this process disrupts ecosystem nutrient flows and
may kill freshwater fish and plants dependent on more neutral or alkaline
conditions (see acid rain).

acid rain ­ characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur
dioxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly to the earth's fragile
ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values
greater that 7 are considered alkaline, and anything measured below 5.6 is
considered acid precipitation; note – a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has
been measured in rainfall in New England.

asbestos ­ a naturally occurring soft fibrous mineral commonly
used in fireproofing materials and considered to be highly carcinogenic.

biodiversity – also biological diversity; many species, diverse in
form and function, at the genetic, organism, community, and ecosystem level;
loss of biodiversity reduces an ecosystem's ability to recover from natural or
man-induced disruption.

catchments ­ assemblages used to capture and retain rainwater and
runoff; an important water management technique in areas with limited freshwater
resources, such as Gibraltar.

DDT (dichloro­diphenyl­trichloro­ethane) ­ a
colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use
of DDT was banned in the US in 1972.

defoliants ­ chemicals which cause plants to lose their leaves
artificially; often used in agricultural practices for weed control, and may
have detrimental impacts on human and ecosystem health.

deforestation ­ the destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g.,
unsustainable forestry practices, agricultural and range land clearing, and the
over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without planting new growth.

desertification – the spread of desert-like conditions in arid or
semi-arid areas, due to overgrazing, loss of agriculturally productive soils, or
climate change.

dredging – in general, the practice of deepening an existing waterway;
more specifically, a technique used for collecting bottom-dwelling marine
organisms (e.g., shellfish) or harvesting coral, often causing significant
destruction of reef and ocean-floor ecosystems.

drift­net fishing ­ done with a net, miles in extent, that is
generally anchored to a boat and left to float with the tide; often results in
an over harvesting and waste of large populations of non-commercial marine
species (by-catch) by its effect of "sweeping the ocean clean".

ecosystems ­ ecological units comprised of complex communities of
organisms and their specific environments.

effluents ­ waste materials, such as smoke or sewage, which are
released into the environment, subsequently polluting it.

endangered species ­ a species that is threatened with extinction
either by direct hunting or habitat destruction.

freshwater – water with very low soluble mineral content; sources
include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers.

groundwater – water sources found below the surface of the earth often
in naturally occurring reservoirs in permeable rock strata; the source for wells
and natural springs.

Highlands Water Project ­ a series of dams constructed jointly by
Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho's abundant water supply into a
rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest infrastructure
project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly and controversial;
objections to the project include claims that it forces people from their homes,
submerges farmlands, and squanders economic resources.

Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) ­ represents the 125,000 Inuits
of Russia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland in international environmental issues;
a panel convenes every three years to determine the focus of the ICC; the most
current concerns are long­range transport of pollutants, sustainable
development, and climate change.

metallurgical plants ­ industries which specialize in the science,
technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly concentrated
and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of ground water and air when
not properly disposed.

noxious substances ­ injurious, very harmful to living beings.

overgrazing ­ the grazing of animals on plant material faster than
it can naturally regrow leading to the permanent loss of plant cover, a common
effect of too many animals grazing limited range land.

ozone shield ­ a layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas
(O3) that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth's surface
and absorbs solar ultra­violet radiation that can be harmful to living
organisms.

poaching ­ the illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern
with respect to endangered or threatened species.

pollution ­ the contamination of a healthy environment by
man­made waste.

potable water ­ water that is drinkable, safe to be consumed.

salination – the process through which fresh (drinkable) water becomes
salt (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse process.

siltation ­ occurs when water channels and reservoirs become
clotted with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil erosion.

slash­and­burn agriculture – a rotating cultivation technique
in which trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for temporary
agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines at which point a
new plot is selected and the process repeats; this practice is sustainable while
population levels are low and time is permitted for regrowth of natural
vegetation; conversely, where these conditions do not exist, the practice can
have disastrous consequences for the environment .

soil degradation ­ damage to the land's productive capacity
because of poor agricultural practices such as the excessive use of pesticides
and fertilizers, soil compaction from heavy equipment, or erosion of top soil,
eventually resulting in reduced ability to produce agricultural products.

soil erosion – the removal of soil by the action of water or wind,
compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, and
desertification.

ultra­violet (UV) radiation – a portion of the electromagnetic
energy emitted by the sun and naturally filtered in the upper atmosphere by the
ozone layer; UV radiation can be harmful to living organisms and has been linked
to increasing rates of skin cancer in humans.

water-born diseases ­ those in which the bacteria survive in, and
is transmitted through, water; always a serious threat in areas with an
untreated water supply.


Environment – international agreements: This entry separates country
participation in international environmental agreements into two levels –
party to et signed but not ratified. Agreements are listed in
alphabetical order by the abbreviated form of the full name.


Environmental agreements: This information is presented in
Appendix C:
Selected International Environmental Agreements
, which includes the
name, abbreviation, date opened for signature, date entered into force,
objective, and parties by category.


Ethnic groups: This entry provides a rank ordering of ethnic groups
starting with the largest and normally includes the percent of total population.


Exchange rates: This entry provides the official value of a country's
monetary unit at a given date or over a given period of time, as expressed in
units of local currency per US dollar and as determined by international market
forces or official fiat.


Executive branch: This entry includes several subfields. Chief of
state
includes the name and title of the titular leader of the country who
represents the state at official and ceremonial functions but may not be
involved with the day-to-day activities of the government. Head of
government
includes the name and title of the top administrative leader who
is designated to manage the day-to-day activities of the government.
Cabinet includes the official name for this body of high-ranking advisers
and the method for selection of members. Elections includes the nature of
election process or accession to power, date of the last election, and date of
the next election. Election results includes the percent of vote for each
candidate in the last election. In the UK, the monarch is the chief of state,
and the prime minister is the head of government. In the US, the president is
both the chief of state and the head of government.


Exports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of exports on
an f.o.b. (free on board) basis.


Exports – commodities: This entry provides a rank ordering of exported
products starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of
total dollar value.


Exports – partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading
partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of
total dollar value.


Fiscal year: This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for
a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but
which may begin in any month. All yearly references are for the calendar year
(CY) unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year (FY).


Flag description: This entry provides a written flag description
produced from actual flags or the best information available at the time the
entry was written. The flags of independent states are used by their
dependencies unless there is an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed
and other areas do not have flags.


Flag graphic: Most versions of the Factbook include a color
flag at the beginning of the country profile. The flag graphics were produced
from actual flags or the best information available at the time of preparation.
The flags of independent states are used by their dependencies unless there is
an officially recognized local flag. Some disputed and other areas do not have
flags.


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural): This entry provides the annual quantity of water in cubic kilometers removed from available sources for use in any purpose.
Water drawn-off is not necessarily entirely consumed and some portion may be returned for further use downstream. Domestic sector use refers to water supplied by public distribution systems.
Note that some of this total may be used for small industrial and/or limited agricultural purposes.
Industrial sector use is the quantity of water used by self-supplied industries not connected to a public distribution system.
Agricultural sector use includes water used for irrigation and livestock watering, and does not account for agriculture directly dependent on rainfall.
Included are figures for total annual water withdrawal and per capita water withdrawal.


GDP: This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP) or value of all
final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. GDP dollar
estimates in the Factbook are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP)
calculations. See the note on GDP methodology for more information.


GDP – composition, by end use: This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners.
The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital,
investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.

household consumption consists of expenditures by resident households, and by nonprofit institutions that serve households, on goods and services that are consumed by individuals.
This includes consumption of both domestically produced and foreign goods and services.

government consumption consists of government expenditures on goods and services. These figures exclude government transfer payments, such as interest on debt,
unemployment, and social security, since such payments are not made in exchange for goods and services supplied.

investment in inventories consists of net changes to the stock of outputs that are still held by the units that produce them, awaiting further sale to an end user,
such as automobiles sitting on a dealer's lot or groceries on the store shelves. This figure may be positive or negative.
If the stock of unsold output increases during the relevant time period, investment in inventories is positive, but, if the stock of unsold goods declines, it will be negative.
Investment in inventories normally is an early indicator of the state of the economy.
If the stock of unsold items increases unexpectedly – because people stop buying – the economy may be entering a recession; but if the stock of unsold items falls –
and goods "go flying off the shelves" – businesses normally try to replace those stocks, and the economy is likely to accelerate.

exports of goods and services consist of sales, barter, gifts, or grants of goods and services from residents to nonresidents.

imports of goods and services consist of purchases, barter, or receipts of gifts, or grants of goods and services by residents from nonresidents.
Exports are treated as a positive item, while imports are treated as a negative item.
In a purely accounting sense, imports have no direct impact on GDP, which only measures output of the domestic economy.
Imports are entered as a negative item to offset the fact that the expenditure figures for consumption, investment, government, and exports also include expenditures on imports.
These imports contribute directly to foreign GDP but only indirectly to domestic GDP. Because of this negative offset for imports of goods and services,
the sum of the other five items, excluding imports, will always total more than 100 percent of GDP.
A surplus of exports of goods and services over imports indicates an economy is investing abroad, while a deficit indicates an economy is borrowing from abroad.


GDP – composition, by sector: This entry gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and&nbspservices to total GDP. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than 100 percent if the data are incomplete.


GDP – composition, by sector of origin: This entry shows where production takes place in an economy.
The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, et services to total GDP, and will total 100 percent of GDP if the data are complete.
Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry.
Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance
and all other private economic activities that do not produce material goods.


GDP – per capita: This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity
basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year.


GDP – real growth rate: This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis
adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent.


GDP (official exchange rate): This entry gives the gross domestic product (GDP)
or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.
A nation's GDP at offical exchange rates (OER) is the home-currency-denominated annual
GDP figure divided by the bilateral average US exchange rate with that country in that
year. The measure is simple to compute and gives a precise measure of the value of
output. Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy
maintains vis-a-vis its neighbors, judging that an exchange rate captures the
purchasing power a nation enjoys in the international marketplace. Official exchange
rates, however, can be artifically fixed and/or subject to manipulation – resulting
in claims of the country having an under- or over-valued currency – and are not
necessarily the equivalent of a market-determined exchange rate. Moreover, even
if the official exchange rate is market-determined, market exchange rates are
frequently established by a relatively small set of goods and services (the ones
the country trades) and may not capture the value of the larger set of goods the
country produces. Furthermore, OER-converted GDP is not well suited to comparing
domestic GDP over time, since appreciation/depreciation from one year to the next
will make the OER GDP value rise/fall regardless of whether home-currency-denominated
GDP changed.


GDP (purchasing power parity): This entry gives the gross domestic product
(GDP) or value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year.
A nation's GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of
all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the
United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita
welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries.
The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all
goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have
a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or
non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on
a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries
do not formally participate in the World Bank's PPP project that calculates these
measures, so the resulting GDP estimates for these countries may lack precision.
For many developing countries, PPP-based GDP measures are multiples of the official
exchange rate (OER) measure. The difference between the OER- and PPP-denominated
GDP values for most of the weathly industrialized countries are generally much
smaller.


GDP methodology: In the Economy section, GDP dollar estimates
for all countries are derived from purchasing power parity (PPP) calculations
rather than from conversions at official currency exchange rates. The PPP method
involves the use of standardized international dollar price weights, which are
applied to the quantities of final goods and services produced in a given
economy. The data derived from the PPP method provide the best available
starting point for comparisons of economic strength and well-being between
countries. The division of a GDP estimate in domestic currency by the
corresponding PPP estimate in dollars gives the PPP conversion rate. Whereas PPP
estimates for OECD countries are quite reliable, PPP estimates for developing
countries are often rough approximations. Most of the GDP estimates are based on
extrapolation of PPP numbers published by the UN International Comparison
Program (UNICP) and by Professors Robert Summers and Alan Heston of the
University of Pennsylvania and their colleagues. In contrast, the currency
exchange rate method involves a variety of international and domestic financial
forces that often have little relation to domestic output. In developing
countries with weak currencies the exchange rate estimate of GDP in dollars is
typically one-fourth to one-half the PPP estimate. Furthermore, exchange rates
may suddenly go up or down by 10% or more because of market forces or official
fiat whereas real output has remained unchanged. On 12 January 1994, for
example, the 14 countries of the African Financial Community (whose currencies
are tied to the French franc) devalued their currencies by 50%. This move, of
course, did not cut the real output of these countries by half. One important
caution: the proportion of, say, defense expenditures as a percentage of GDP in
local currency accounts may differ substantially from the proportion when GDP
accounts are expressed in PPP terms, as, for example, when an observer tries to
estimate the dollar level of Russian or Japanese military expenditures. Note:
the numbers for GDP and other economic data can ne pas be chained together
from successive volumes of the Factbook because of changes in the US
dollar measuring rod, revisions of data by statistical agencies, use of new or
different sources of information, and changes in national statistical methods
and practices.


Geographic coordinates: This entry includes rounded latitude and
longitude figures for the purpose of finding the approximate geographic center
of an entity and is based on the Gazetteer of Conventional Names, Third
Edition, August 1988, US Board on Geographic Names and on other sources.


Geographic names: This information is presented in
Appendix F:
Cross-Reference List of Geographic Names
which indicates where various
geographic names – including alternate names, former names, political or
geographical portions of larger entities, and the location of all US Foreign
Service posts – can be found in The World Factbook. Spellings are
normally, but not always, those approved by the US Board on Geographic Names
(BGN). Alternate names are included in parentheses, while additional information
is included in brackets.


Geography: This category includes the entries dealing with the natural
environment and the effects of human activity.


Geography – note: This entry includes miscellaneous geographic
information of significance not included elsewhere.


Gini index: This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of (a) the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to (b) the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its Lorenz curve to the 45 degree line and the lower its Gini index, e.g., a Scandinavian country with an index of 25. The more unequal a country's income distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve from the 45 degree line and the higher its Gini index, e.g., a Sub-Saharan country with an index of 50. If income were distributed with perfect equality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the 45 degree line and the index would be zero; if income were distributed with perfect inequality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the horizontal axis and the right vertical axis and the index would be 100.


GNP: Gross national product (GNP) is the value of all final goods and
services produced within a nation in a given year, plus income earned by its
citizens abroad, minus income earned by foreigners from domestic production. Le
Factbook, following current practice, uses GDP rather than GNP to
measure national production. However, the user must realize that in certain
countries net remittances from citizens working abroad may be important to
national well-being.


Government: This category includes the entries dealing with the system
for the adoption and administration of public policy.


Government – note: This entry includes miscellaneous government
information of significance not included elsewhere.


Government type: This entry gives the basic form of government. Definitions of the major governmental terms are as follows:
Anarchy – a condition of lawlessness or political disorder brought about by the absence of governmental authority.
Commonwealth – a nation, state, or other political entity founded on law and united by a compact of the people for the common good.
Communism – a system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy and a single – often authoritarian – party holds power;
state controls are imposed with the elimination of private ownership of property or capital while claiming to make progress toward a higher social order
in which all goods are equally shared by the people (i.e., a classless society).
Confederacy (Confederation) – a union by compact or treaty between states, provinces, or territories, that creates a central government with limited powers;
the constituent entities retain supreme authority over all matters except those delegated to the central government.
Constitutional – a government by or operating under an authoritative document (constitution) that sets forth the system of fundamental laws and principles that determines the nature,
functions, and limits of that government.
Constitutional democracy – a form of government in which the sovereign power of the people is spelled out in a governing constitution.
Constitutional monarchy – a system of government in which a monarch is guided by a constitution whereby his/her rights, duties,
and responsibilities are spelled out in written law or by custom.
Democracy – a form of government in which the supreme power is retained by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a system of representation
and delegated authority periodically renewed.
Democratic republic – a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them.
Dictatorship – a form of government in which a ruler or small clique wield absolute power (not restricted by a constitution or laws).
Ecclesiastical – a government administrated by a church.
Federal (Federative) – a form of government in which sovereign power is formally divided – usually by means of a constitution – between a central authority
and a number of constituent regions (states, colonies, or provinces) so that each region retains some management of its internal affairs;
differs from a confederacy in that the central government exerts influence directly upon both individuals as well as upon the regional units.
Federal republic – a state in which the powers of the central government are restricted and in which the component parts (states, colonies, or provinces) retain a degree of self-government;
ultimate sovereign power rests with the voters who chose their governmental representatives.
Islamic republic – a particular form of government adoped by some Muslim states; although such a state is, in theory, a theocracy, it remains a republic,
but its laws are required to be compatible with the laws of Islam.
Maoism – the theory and practice of Marxism-Leninism developed in China by Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung),
which states that a continuous revolution is necessary if the leaders of a communist state are to keep in touch with the people.
Marxism – the political, economic, and social principles espoused by 19th century economist Karl Marx;
he viewed the struggle of workers as a progression of historical forces that would proceed from a class struggle of the proletariat (workers) exploited by capitalists (business owners),
to a socialist "dictatorship of the proletariat," to, finally, a classless society – communism.
Marxism-Leninism – an expanded form of communism developed by Lenin from doctrines of Karl Marx;
Lenin saw imperialism as the final stage of capitalism and shifted the focus of workers' struggle from developed to underdeveloped countries.
Monarchy – a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the hands of a monarch who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and by hereditary right;
the monarch may be either a sole absolute ruler or a sovereign – such as a king, queen, or prince – with constitutionally limited authority.
Oligarchy – a government in which control is exercised by a small group of individuals whose authority generally is based on wealth or power.
Parliamentary democracy – a political system in which the legislature (parliament) selects the government – a prime minister, premier,
or chancellor along with the cabinet ministers – according to party strength as expressed in elections; by this system, the government acquires a dual responsibility:
to the people as well as to the parliament.
Parliamentary government (Cabinet-Parliamentary government) – a government in which members of an executive branch (the cabinet and its leader – a prime minister, premier, or chancellor)
are nominated to their positions by a legislature or parliament, and are directly responsible to it;
this type of government can be dissolved at will by the parliament (legislature) by means of a no confidence vote or the leader of the cabinet may dissolve the parliament
if it can no longer function.
Parliamentary monarchy – a state headed by a monarch who is not actively involved in policy formation or implementation (i.e., the exercise of sovereign powers by a monarch in a ceremonial capacity)
; true governmental leadership is carried out by a cabinet and its head – a prime minister, premier, or chancellor – who are drawn from a legislature (parliament).
Republic – a representative democracy in which the people's elected deputies (representatives), not the people themselves, vote on legislation.
Socialism – a government in which the means of planning, producing, and distributing goods is controlled by a central government that theoretically seeks a more just and
equitable distribution of property and labor; in actuality, most socialist governments have ended up being no more than dictatorships over workers by a ruling elite.
Sultanate – similar to a monarchy, but a government in which the supreme power is in the hands of a sultan (the head of a Muslim state); the sultan may be an absolute ruler or
a sovereign with constitutionally limited authority.
Theocracy – a form of government in which a Deity is recognized as the supreme civil ruler, but the Deity's laws are interpreted by ecclesiastical authorities (bishops, mullahs, etc.);
a government subject to religious authority.
Totalitarian – a government that seeks to subordinate the individual to the state by controlling not only all political and economic matters, but also the attitudes, values,
and beliefs of its population..

Gross domestic product: see PIB

Gross national product: see GNP


Gross national saving: Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure (household plus government) from Gross national disposable income,
and consists of personal saving, plus business saving (the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits),
plus government saving (the excess of tax revenues over expenditures), but excludes foreign saving (the excess of imports of goods and services over exports).
The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative number indicates that the economy as a whole is spending more income than it produces, thus drawing down national wealth (dissaving).

Gross world product: see GWP


GWP: This entry gives the gross world product (GWP) or aggregate value
of all final goods and services produced worldwide in a given year.


Health expenditures: This entry provides the total expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP.
Health expenditures are broadly defined as activities performed either by institutions or individuals through the application of medical,
paramedical, and/or nursing knowledge and technology, the primary purpose of which is to promote, restore, or maintain health.


Heliports: This entry gives the total number of established helicopter
takeoff and landing sites (which may or may not have fuel or other services).


Highways: This entry includes the total length of the highway
system as well as the length of the paved et unpaved components.


HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: This entry gives an estimate of the
percentage of adults (aged 15-49) living with HIV/AIDS. The adult prevalence rate
is calculated by dividing the estimated number of adults living with HIV/AIDS at
yearend by the total adult population at yearend.


HIV/AIDS – deaths: This entry gives an estimate of the number of adults
and children who died of AIDS during a given calendar year.


HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: This entry gives an estimate of
all people (adults and children) alive at yearend with HIV infection, whether or
not they have developed symptoms of AIDS.


Hospital bed density: This entry provides the number of hospital beds per 1,000 people; it serves as a general measure of inpatient service availability.
Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers.
In most cases, beds for both acute and chronic care are included.
Because the level of inpatient services required for individual countries depends on several factors – such as demographic issues and
the burden of disease – there is no global target for the number of hospital beds per country.
So, while 2 beds per 1,000 in one country may be sufficient, 2 beds per 1,000 in another may be woefully inadequate because of the amount of people hospitalized by disease.


Household income or consumption by percentage share: Data on household
income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for
household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and
adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal
distribution than surveys based on consumption. The quality of surveys is
improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country
comparaisons.

Hydrographic data codes: see Data codes.


Illicit drugs: This entry gives information on the five categories of
illicit drugs – narcotics, stimulants, depressants (sedatives), hallucinogens,
and cannabis. These categories include many drugs legally produced and
prescribed by doctors as well as those illegally produced and sold outside of
medical channels.

Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) is the common hemp plant, which provides
hallucinogens with some sedative properties, and includes marijuana (pot,
Acapulco gold, grass, reefer), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, Marinol), hashish
(hash), and hashish oil (hash oil).

Coca (mostly Erythroxylum coca) is a bush with leaves that contain the
stimulant used to make cocaine. Coca is not to be confused with cocoa, which
comes from cacao seeds and is used in making chocolate, cocoa, and cocoa butter.

Cocaine is a stimulant derived from the leaves of the coca bush.

Depressants (sedatives) are drugs that reduce tension and anxiety and include
chloral hydrate, barbiturates (Amytal, Nembutal, Seconal, phenobarbital),
benzodiazepines (Librium, Valium), methaqualone (Quaalude), glutethimide
(Doriden), and others (Equanil, Placidyl, Valmid).

Drugs are any chemical substances that effect a physical, mental, emotional,
or behavioral change in an individual.

Drug abuse is the use of any licit or illicit chemical substance that results
in physical, mental, emotional, or behavioral impairment in an individual.

Hallucinogens are drugs that affect sensation, thinking, self-awareness, and
emotion. Hallucinogens include LSD (acid, microdot), mescaline and peyote (mexc,
buttons, cactus), amphetamine variants (PMA, STP, DOB), phencyclidine (PCP,
angel dust, hog), phencyclidine analogues (PCE, PCPy, TCP), and others
(psilocybin, psilocyn).

Hashish is the resinous exudate of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis
sativa).

Heroin is a semisynthetic derivative of morphine.

Mandrax is a trade name for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical depressant.

Marijuana is the dried leaves of the cannabis or hemp plant (Cannabis
sativa).

Methaqualone is a pharmaceutical depressant, referred to as mandrax in
Southwest Asia.

Narcotics are drugs that relieve pain, often induce sleep, and refer to
opium, opium derivatives, and synthetic substitutes. Natural narcotics include
opium (paregoric, parepectolin), morphine (MS-Contin, Roxanol), codeine (Tylenol
with codeine, Empirin with codeine, Robitussan AC), and thebaine. Semisynthetic
narcotics include heroin (horse, smack), and hydromorphone (Dilaudid). Synthetic
narcotics include meperidine or Pethidine (Demerol, Mepergan), methadone
(Dolophine, Methadose), and others (Darvon, Lomotil).

Opium is the brown, gummy exudate of the incised, unripe seedpod of the opium
poppy.

Opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) is the source for the natural and
semisynthetic narcotics.

Poppy straw concentrate is the alkaloid derived from the mature, dried opium
poppy.

Qat (kat, khat) is a stimulant from the buds or leaves of Catha edulis that
is chewed or drunk as tea.

Quaaludes is the North American slang term for methaqualone, a pharmaceutical
depressant.

Stimulants are drugs that relieve mild depression, increase energy and
activity, and include cocaine (coke, snow, crack), amphetamines (Desoxyn,
Dexedrine), ephedrine, ecstasy (clarity, essence, doctor, Adam), phenmetrazine
(Preludin), methylphenidate (Ritalin), and others (Cylert, Sanorex, Tenuate).


Imports: This entry provides the total US dollar amount of imports on
a c.i.f. (cost, insurance, and freight) or f.o.b. (free on board) basis.


Imports – commodities: This entry provides a rank ordering of imported
products starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of
total dollar value.


Imports – partners: This entry provides a rank ordering of trading
partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of
total dollar value.


Independence: For most countries, this entry gives the date that
sovereignty was achieved and from which nation, empire, or trusteeship. For the
other countries, the date given may not represent "independence" in the strict
sense, but rather some significant nationhood event such as the traditional
founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation,
establishment, fundamental change in the form of government, or state
succession. Dependent areas include the notation "none" followed by the nature
of their dependency status. Also see the Terminology note.


Industrial production growth rate: This entry gives the annual
percentage increase in industrial production (includes manufacturing, mining,
and construction).


Industries: This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting
with the largest by value of annual output.


Infant mortality rate: This entry gives the number of deaths of
infants under one year old in a given year per 1,000 live births in the same
year. This rate is often used an indicator of the level of health in a country.


Inflation rate (consumer prices): This entry furnishes the annual
percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer
prices.

International disputes: see Disputes – international


International law organization participation: This entry includes information on a country's acceptance of jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice (ICJ)
and of the International Criminal Court (ICCt); 55 countries have accepted ICJ jurisdiction with reservations and 11 have accepted ICJ jurisdiction without reservations;
114 countries have accepted ICCt jurisdiction. Appendix B:
International Organizations and Groups
explains the differing mandates of the ICJ and ICCt.


International organization participation: This entry lists in
alphabetical order by abbreviation those international organizations in which
the subject country is a member or participates in some other way.


International organizations: This information is presented in
Appendix B:
International Organizations and Groups
which includes the name,
abbreviation, address, telephone, FAX, date established, aim, and members by
category.


Internet country code: This entry includes the two-letter codes maintained by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the ISO 3166 Alpha-2 list
and used by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) to establish country-coded
top-level domains (ccTLDs).


Internet hosts: This entry lists the number of Internet hosts available
within a country. An Internet host is a computer connected directly to the Internet;
normally an Internet Service Provider's (ISP) computer is a host. Internet users
may use either a hard-wired terminal, at an institution with a mainframe computer
connected directly to the Internet, or may connect remotely by way of a modem via
telephone line, cable, or satellite to the Internet Service Provider's host computer.
The number of hosts is one indicator of the extent of Internet connectivity.


Internet Service Providers (ISPs): Ce entry supplies the
number of Internet Service Providers within a country. An ISP is defined as a
company that provides access to the Internet.


Internet users: This entry gives the number of users within a country that
access the Internet. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who
access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within
a period of several months.


Introduction: This category includes one entry, Background.


Investment (gross fixed): This entry records total business spending on fixed assets,
such as factories, machinery, equipment, dwellings, and inventories of raw materials, which provide
the basis for future production. It is measured gross of the depreciation of the assets, i.e., it includes
invesment that merely replaces worn-out or scrapped capital.


Irrigated land: This entry gives the number of square kilometers of
land area that is artificially supplied with water.


Judicial branch: This entry contains the name(s) of the highest
court(s) and a brief description of the selection process for members.


Labor force: This entry contains the total labor force figure.


Labor force – by occupation: This entry contains a rank ordering of
component parts of the labor force by occupation.


Land boundaries: This entry contains the total length of all land
boundaries and the individual lengths for each of the contiguous border
countries.


Land use: This entry contains the percentage shares of total land area
for five different types of land use: arable land – land cultivated for
crops that are replanted after each harvest like wheat, maize, and rice;
permanent crops – land cultivated for crops that are not replanted after
each harvest like citrus, coffee, and rubber; permanent pastures – land
permanently used for herbaceous forage crops; forests and woodland – land
under dense or open stands of trees; other – any land type not
specifically mentioned above, such as urban areas, roads, desert, etc.


Languages: This entry provides a rank ordering of languages starting
with the largest and sometimes includes the percent of total population speaking
that language.


Legal system: This entry contains a brief description of the legal
system's historical roots, role in government, and acceptance of International
Court of Justice (ICJ) jurisdiction.


Legislative branch: This entry contains information on the structure
(unicameral, bicameral, tricameral), formal name, number of seats, and term of
office. Elections includes the nature of election process or accession to
power, date of the last election, and date of the next election. Election
results
includes the percent of vote and/or number of seats held by each
party in the last election.


Life expectancy at birth: This entry contains the average number of
years to be lived by a group of people born in the same year, if mortality at
each age remains constant in the future. The entry includes total population as
well as the male and female components. Life expectancy at birth is also a
measure of overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality at
all ages. It can also be thought of as indicating the potential return on
investment in human capital and is necessary for the calculation of various
actuarial measures.


Literacy: This entry includes a definition of literacy and Census
Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no
universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all
rates are based on the most common definition – the ability to read and write at
a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess
the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook.
Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is
probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons. Low
levels of literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic
development of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven
world.


Location: This entry identifies the country's regional location,
neighboring countries, and adjacent bodies of water.


Major cities – population: This entry provides the population of the capital and up to four major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least 750,000 people.
An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.
For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of 750,000 or more, only the population of the capital is presented.


Major infectious diseases: This entry lists major infectious diseases likely to be encountered in countries where the risk of such diseases is assessed to be very high
as compared to the United States. These infectious diseases represent risks to US government personnel traveling to the specified country for a period of less than three years.
Le degree of risk is assessed by considering the foreign nature of these infectious diseases, their severity, and the probability of being affected by the diseases present.
The diseases listed do not necessarily represent the total disease burden experienced by the local population.
The risk to an individual traveler varies considerably by the specific location,
visit duration, type of activities, type of accommodations, time of year, and other factors. Consultation with a travel medicine physician is needed to evaluate individual risk
and recommend appropriate preventive measures such as vaccines.
Diseases are organized into the following six exposure categories shown in italics and listed in
typical descending order of risk
. Note – The sequence of exposure categories listed in individual country entries may vary according to local conditions.
Food or waterborne diseases acquired through eating or drinking on the local economy:
Hepatitis A – viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver;
spread through consumption of food or water contaminated with fecal matter, principally in areas of poor sanitation; victims exhibit fever, jaundice, and diarrhea;
15% of victims will experience prolonged symptoms over 6-9 months; vaccine available.
Hepatitis E – water-borne viral disease that interferes with the functioning of the liver;
most commonly spread through fecal contamination of drinking water; victims exhibit jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and dark colored urine.
Typhoid fever – bacterial disease spread through contact with food or water contaminated by fecal matter or sewage; victims exhibit sustained high fevers;
left untreated, mortality rates can reach 20%.
vectorborne diseases acquired through the bite of an infected arthropod:
Malaria – caused by single-cell parasitic protozoa Plasmodium; transmitted to humans via the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito;
parasites multiply in the liver attacking red blood cells resulting in cycles of fever, chills, and sweats accompanied by anemia;
death due to damage to vital organs and interruption of blood supply to the brain; endemic in 100, mostly tropical, countries with 90% of cases and the majority of 1.5-2.5 million estimated
annual deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa.
Dengue fever – mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments; manifests as sudden onset of fever and severe headache;
occasionally produces shock and hemorrhage leading to death in 5% of cases.
Yellow fever – mosquito-borne viral disease; severity ranges from influenza-like symptoms to severe hepatitis and hemorrhagic fever;
occurs only in tropical South America and sub-Saharan Africa, where most cases are reported; fatality rate is less than 20%.
Japanese Encephalitis – mosquito-borne (Culex tritaeniorhynchus) viral disease associated with rural areas in Asia;
acute encephalitis can progress to paralysis, coma, and death; fatality rates 30%.
African Trypanosomiasis – caused by the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma; transmitted to humans via the bite of bloodsucking Tsetse flies;
infection leads to malaise and irregular fevers and, in advanced cases when the parasites invade the central nervous system, coma and death; endemic in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa;
cattle and wild animals act as reservoir hosts for the parasites.
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis – caused by the parasitic protozoa leishmania; transmitted to humans via the bite of sandflies;
results in skin lesions that may become chronic; endemic in 88 countries; 90% of cases occur in Iran, Afghanistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, and Peru;
wild and domesticated animals as well as humans can act as reservoirs of infection.
Plague – bacterial disease transmitted by fleas normally associated with rats; person-to-person airborne transmission also possible;
recent plague epidemics occurred in areas of Asia, Africa, and South America associated with rural areas or small towns and villages;
manifests as fever, headache, and painfully swollen lymph nodes; disease progresses rapidly and without antibiotic treatment leads to pneumonic form with a death rate in excess of 50%.
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever – tick-borne viral disease; infection may also result from exposure to infected animal blood or tissue;
geographic distribution includes Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe; sudden onset of fever, headache, and muscle aches followed by hemorrhaging in the bowels,
urine, nose, and gums; mortality rate is approximately 30%.
Rift Valley fever – viral disease affecting domesticated animals and humans; transmission is by mosquito and other biting insects;
infection may also occur through handling of infected meat or contact with blood; geographic distribution includes eastern and southern Africa where cattle and sheep are raised;
symptoms are generally mild with fever and some liver abnormalities, but the disease may progress to hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis, or ocular disease;
fatality rates are low at about 1% of cases.
Chikungunya – mosquito-borne (Aedes aegypti) viral disease associated with urban environments, similar to Dengue Fever;
characterized by sudden onset of fever, rash, and severe joint pain usually lasting 3-7 days, some cases result in persistent arthritis.
water contact diseases acquired through swimming or wading in freshwater lakes, streams, and rivers:
Leptospirosis – bacterial disease that affects animals and humans; infection occurs through contact with water, food, or soil contaminated by animal urine;
symptoms include high fever, severe headache, vomiting, jaundice, and diarrhea; untreated, the disease can result in kidney damage, liver failure, meningitis, or respiratory distress;
fatality rates are low but left untreated recovery can take months.
Schistosomiasis – caused by parasitic trematode flatworm Schistosoma; fresh water snails act as intermediate host and release larval form of parasite
that penetrates the skin of people exposed to contaminated water; worms mature and reproduce in the blood vessels, liver, kidneys, and intestines releasing eggs,
which become trapped in tissues triggering an immune response; may manifest as either urinary or intestinal disease resulting in decreased work or learning capacity;
mortality, while generally low, may occur in advanced cases usually due to bladder cancer; endemic in 74 developing countries with 80% of infected people living in sub-Saharan Africa;
humans act as the reservoir for this parasite.
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease acquired through inhalation of aerosols contaminated with rodent urine:
Lassa fever – viral disease carried by rats of the genus Mastomys; endemic in portions of West Africa; infection occurs through direct contact with or consumption of food
contaminated by rodent urine or fecal matter containing virus particles; fatality rate can reach 50% in epidemic outbreaks.
respiratory disease acquired through close contact with an infectious person:
Meningococcal meningitis – bacterial disease causing an inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord;
one of the most important bacterial pathogens is Neisseria meningitidis because of its potential to cause epidemics;
symptoms include stiff neck, high fever, headaches, and vomiting; bacteria are transmitted from person to person by respiratory droplets and facilitated by close
and prolonged contact resulting from crowded living conditions, often with a seasonal distribution; death occurs in 5-15% of cases,
typically within 24-48 hours of onset of symptoms; highest burden of meningococcal disease occurs in the hyperendemic region of sub-Saharan Africa known as the "Meningitis Belt"
which stretches from Senegal east to Ethiopia.
animal contact disease acquired through direct contact with local animals:
Rabies – viral disease of mammals usually transmitted through the bite of an infected animal, most commonly dogs; virus affects the central nervous system causing brain alteration and death;
symptoms initially are non-specific fever and headache progressing to neurological symptoms; death occurs within days of the onset of symptoms.


Major urban areas – population: This entry provides the population of the capital and up to five major cities defined as urban agglomerations with populations of at least 750,000 people.
An urban agglomeration is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the boundaries of the city.
For smaller countries, lacking urban centers of 750,000 or more, only the population of the capital is presented.


Manpower available for military service: This entry gives the number
of males and females falling in the military age range for the country and assumes
that every individual is fit to serve.


Manpower fit for military service: This entry gives the number of males
and females falling in the military age range for the country and who are not otherwise
disqualified for health reasons; accounts for the health situation in the country and provides
a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to serve.


Manpower reaching military service age annually: This entry gives the number of
draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in any given year and is a
measure of the availability of draft-age young adults.


Map references: This entry includes the name of the Factbook
reference map on which a country may be found. The entry on Geographic
coordinates
may be helpful in finding some smaller countries.


Maritime claims: This entry includes the following claims, the definitions of which are excerpted from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS),
which alone contains the full and definitive descriptions:

territorial sea – the sovereignty of a coastal state extends beyond its land territory and internal waters to an adjacent belt of sea,
described as the territorial sea in the UNCLOS (Part II); this sovereignty extends to the air space over the territorial sea as well as its underlying seabed and subsoil;
every state has the right to establish the breadth of its territorial sea up to a limit not exceeding 12 nautical miles;
the normal baseline for measuring the breadth of the territorial sea is the low-water line along the coast as marked on large-scale charts officially recognized by the coastal state;
the UNCLOS describes specific rules for archipelagic states.

contiguous zone – according to the UNCLOS (Article 33), this is a zone contiguous to a coastal state's territorial sea, over which it may exercise the control necessary to:
prevent infringement of its customs, fiscal, immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea;
punish infringement of the above laws and regulations committed within its territory or territorial sea;
the contiguous zone may not extend beyond 24 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured
(e.g. the US has claimed a 12-nautical mile contiguous zone in addition to its 12-nautical mile territorial sea).

exclusive economic zone (EEZ) – the UNCLOS (Part V) defines the EEZ as a zone beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea in which a coastal state has:
sovereign rights for the purpose of exploring and exploiting, conserving and managing the natural resources, whether living or non-living, of the waters superjacent to the seabed
and of the seabed and its subsoil, and with regard to other activities for the economic exploitation and exploration of the zone, such as the production of energy from the water, currents,
and winds; jurisdiction with regard to the establishment and use of artificial islands, installations, and structures; marine scientific research;
the protection and preservation of the marine environment;
the outer limit of the exclusive economic zone shall not exceed 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured.

continental shelf – the UNCLOS (Article 76) defines the continental shelf of a coastal state as comprising the seabed and
subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer edge of the continental margin,
or to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which the breadth of the territorial sea is measured where the outer edge of the continental margin does not extend up to that
distance; the continental margin comprises the submerged prolongation of the landmass of the coastal state, and consists of the seabed and subsoil of the shelf, the slope and the rise;
wherever the continental margin extends beyond 200 nautical miles from the baseline, coastal states may extend their claim to a distance not to exceed 350 nautical miles from the baseline
or 100 nautical miles from the 2500 meter isobath; it does not include the deep ocean floor with its oceanic ridges or the subsoil thereof.

exclusive fishing zone – while this term is not used in the UNCLOS, some states (e.g., the United Kingdom) have chosen not to claim an EEZ,
but rather to claim jurisdiction over the living resources off their coast; in such cases, the term exclusive fishing zone is often used; the breadth of this zone is normally the same as the EEZ
or 200 nautical miles.


Market value of publicly traded shares: This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets
on the final day of the period indicated. It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares,
cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange.


Market value of publicly traded shares: This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded
companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the
final day of the period indicated. It is simply the latest price per
share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated
over all companies listed on the particular exchange.


Maternal mortality rate: The maternal mortality rate (MMR) is the annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy
or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes). The MMR includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy,
irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year.


Maternal mortality ratio: The maternal mortality ratio (MMRatio) is the annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live births from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes). The MMRatio includes deaths during pregnancy, childbirth, or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, for a specified year.


Median age: This entry is the age that divides a population into two
numerically equal groups; that is, half the people are younger than this age
and half are older. It is a single index that summarizes the age distribution of a
population. Currently, the median age ranges from a low of about 15 in Uganda and
Gaza Strip to 40 or more in several European countries and Japan. See the entry for
"Age structure" for the importance of a young versus an older age structure and, by
implication, a low versus a higher median age.


Merchant marine: Merchant marine may be defined as all ships engaged
in the carriage of goods; or all commercial vessels (as opposed to all
nonmilitary ships), which excludes tugs, fishing vessels, offshore oil rigs,
etc.; or a grouping of merchant ships by nationality or register. This entry
contains information in two subfields – total et ships by type.
Total includes the total number of ships (1,000 GRT or over), total DWT
for those ships, and total GRT for those ships. Ships by type includes a
listing of barge carriers, bulk cargo ships, cargo ships, combination bulk
carriers, combination ore/oil carriers, container ships, intermodal ships,
liquefied gas tankers, livestock carriers, multifunction large-load carriers,
oil tankers, passenger ships, passenger-cargo ships, railcar carriers,
refrigerated cargo ships, roll-on/roll-off cargo ships, short-sea passenger
ships, specialized tankers, tanker tug-barges, and vehicle carriers.

A captive register is a register of ships maintained by a territory,
possession, or colony primarily or exclusively for the use of ships owned in the
parent country; it is also referred to as an offshore register, the offshore
equivalent of an internal register. Ships on a captive register will fly the
same flag as the parent country, or a local variant of it, but will be subject
to the maritime laws and taxation rules of the offshore territory. Although the
nature of a captive register makes it especially desirable for ships owned in
the parent country, just as in the internal register, the ships may also be
owned abroad. The captive register then acts as a flag of convenience register,
except that it is not the register of an independent state.

A flag of convenience register is a national register offering registration
to a merchant ship not owned in the flag state. The major flags of convenience
(FOC) attract ships to their registers by virtue of low fees, low or nonexistent
taxation of profits, and liberal manning requirements. True FOC registers are
characterized by having relatively few of the registered ships actually owned in
the flag state. Thus, while virtually any flag can be used for ships under a
given set of circumstances, an FOC register is one where the majority of the
merchant fleet is owned abroad. It is also referred to as an open register.

A flag state is the nation in which a ship is registered and which holds
legal jurisdiction over operation of the ship, whether at home or abroad.
Maritime legislation of the flag state determines how a ship is crewed and taxed
and whether a foreign-owned ship may be placed on the register.

An internal register is a register of ships maintained as a subset of a
national register. Ships on the internal register fly the national flag and have
that nationality but are subject to a separate set of maritime rules from those
on the main national register. These differences usually include lower taxation
of profits, use of foreign nationals as crew members, and, usually, ownership
outside the flag state (when it functions as an FOC register). The Norwegian
International Ship Register and Danish International Ship Register are the most
notable examples of an internal register. Both have been instrumental in
stemming flight from the national flag to flags of convenience and in attracting
foreign-owned ships to the Norwegian and Danish flags.

A merchant ship is a vessel that carries goods against payment of freight; it
is commonly used to denote any nonmilitary ship but accurately restricted to
commercial vessels only.

A register is the record of a ship's ownership and nationality as listed with
the maritime authorities of a country; also, it is the compendium of such
individual ships' registrations. Registration of a ship provides it with a
nationality and makes it subject to the laws of the country in which registered
(the flag state) regardless of the nationality of the ship's ultimate owner.


Military: This category includes the entries dealing with a country's
military structure, manpower, and expenditures.


Military – note: This entry includes miscellaneous military
information of significance not included elsewhere.


Military branches: This entry lists the names of the ground, naval,
air, marine, and other defense or security forces.


Military and security forces: This entry lists the military and security forces subordinate to defense ministries or the equivalent (typically ground, naval, air, and marine forces), as well as those belonging to interior ministries or the equivalent (typically gendarmeries, border/coast guards, paramilitary police, and other internal security forces).


Military expenditures: This entry gives spending on defense programs for the most recent year
available as a percent of gross domestic product (GDP); the GDP is
calculated on an exchange rate basis, i.e., not in terms of purchasing
power parity (PPP).


Military expenditures – dollar figure: This entry gives current
military expenditures in US dollars; the figure is calculated by multiplying the
estimated defense spending in percentage terms by the gross domestic product
(GDP) calculated on an exchange rate basis ne pas purchasing power
parity (PPP) terms. However, in the case of Russia, estimates of military
expenditures have been made using PPP. Dollar figures for military expenditures
should be treated with caution because of different price patterns and
accounting methods among nations, as well as wide variations in the strength of
their currencies.


Military expenditures – percent of GDP: This entry gives current
military expenditures as an estimated percent of gross domestic product
(GDP).


Military manpower – availability: This entry gives the total numbers
of males and females age 15-49 and assumes that every individual is fit to
serve.


Military manpower – fit for military service: This entry gives the
number of males and females age 15-49 fit for military service. This is a more
refined measure of potential military manpower availability which tries to
correct for the health situation in the country and reduces the maximum
potential number to a more realistic estimate of the actual number fit to
serve.


Military manpower – military age: This entry gives the minimum age at
which an individual may volunteer for military service or be subject to
conscription.


Military manpower – reaching military age annually: This entry gives
the number of draft-age males and females entering the military manpower pool in
any given year and is a measure of the availability of draft-age young
adultes.


Military service age and obligation: This entry gives the required ages
for voluntary or conscript military service and the length of sevice obligation.


Money figures: All money figures are expressed in contemporaneous US
dollars unless otherwise indicated.


Mother's mean age at first birth: This entry provides the mean (average) age of mothers at the birth of their first child. It is a useful indicator for gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use‚ particularly among married and unmarried adolescents, delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns.


National air transport system: This entry includes four subfields describing the air transport system of a given country in terms of both structure and performance. The first subfield, number of registered air carriers, indicates the total number of air carriers registered with the country's national aviation authority and issued an air operator certificate as required by the Convention on International Civil Aviation. The second subfield, inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers, lists the total number of aircraft operated by all registered air carriers in the country. The last two subfields measure the performance of the air transport system in terms of both passengers and freight. The subfield, annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers, includes the total number of passengers carried by air carriers registered in the country, including both domestic and international passengers, in a given year. The last subfield, annual freight traffic on registered air carriers, includes the volume of freight, express, and diplomatic bags carried by registered air carriers and measured in metric tons times kilometers traveled. Freight ton-kilometers equal the sum of the products obtained by multiplying the number of tons of freight, express, and diplomatic bags carried on each flight stage by the stage distance (operation of an aircraft from takeoff to its next landing). For statistical purposes, freight includes express and diplomatic bags but not passenger baggage.


National anthem: A generally patriotic musical composition – usually in the form of
a song or hymn of praise – that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions,
or struggles of a nation or its people. National anthems can be officially recognized as a
national song by a country's constitution or by an enacted law, or simply by tradition.
Although most anthems contain lyrics, some do not.


National holiday: This entry gives the primary national day of
celebration – usually independence day.


National symbol(s): A national symbol is a faunal, floral, or other abstract representation – or some distinctive object – that over time has come to be closely identified
with a country or entity. Not all countries have national symbols; a few countries have more than one.


Nationality: This entry provides the identifying terms for citizens –
noun et adjective.


Natural gas – consumption: This entry is the total natural gas consumed
in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced
and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of
stock changes and other complicating factors.


Natural gas – exports: This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters (cu m).


Natural gas – imports: This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters (cu m).


Natural gas – production: This entry is the total natural gas produced
in cubic meters (cu m). The discrepancy between the amount of natural gas produced
and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of
stock changes and other complicating factors.


Natural gas – proved reserves: This entry is the stock of proved reserves
of natural gas in cubic meters (cu m). Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas,
which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high
degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known
reservoirs and under current economic conditions.


Natural hazards: This entry lists potential natural disasters.


Natural resources: This entry lists a country's mineral, petroleum,
hydropower, and other resources of commercial importance.


Net migration rate: This entry includes the figure for the difference
between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per
1,000 persons (based on midyear population). An excess of persons entering the
country is referred to as net immigration (e.g., 3.56 migrants/1,000
population); an excess of persons leaving the country as net emigration (e.g.,
-9.26 migrants/1,000 population). The net migration rate indicates the
contribution of migration to the overall level of population change. High levels
of migration can cause problems such as increasing unemployment and potential
ethnic strife (if people are coming in) or a reduction in the labor force,
perhaps in certain key sectors (if people are leaving).


Obesity – adult prevalence rate: This entry gives the percent of a country's population considered to be obese.
Obesity is defined as an adult having a Body Mass Index (BMI) greater to or equal to 30.0. BMI is calculated by taking a person's weight in kg and
dividing it by the person's squared height in meters.


People: This category includes the entries dealing with the
characteristics of the people and their society.


People – note: This entry includes miscellaneous demographic
information of significance not included elsewhere.


Personal Names – Capitalization: Le Factbook capitalizes the
surname or family name of individuals for the convenience of our users who are
faced with a world of different cultures and naming conventions. An example
would be President SADDAM Husayn of Iraq. Saddam is his name and Husayn
is his father's name. He may be referred to as President SADDAM Husayn or
President SADDAM, but ne pas President Husayn. The need for capitalization,
bold type, underlining, italics, or some other indicator of the individual's
surname is apparent in the following examples: MAO Zedong, Fidel CASTRO Ruz,
William Jefferson CLINTON, and TUNKU SALAHUDDIN Abdul Aziz Shah ibni Al-Marhum
Sultan Hisammuddin Alam Shah. By knowing the surname, a short form without all
capital letters can be used with confidence as in President Saddam, President
Castro, Chairman Mao, President Clinton, or Sultan Tunku Salahuddin. The same
system of capitalization is extended to the names of leaders with surnames that
are not commonly used such as Queen ELIZABETH II.


Personal Names – Spelling: The romanization of personal names in the
Factbook normally follows the same transliteration system used by the US
Board on Geographic Names for spelling place names. At times, however, a foreign
leader expressly indicates a preference for, or the media or official documents
regularly use, a romanized spelling that differs from the transliteration
derived from the US Government standard. In such cases, the Factbook uses
the alternative spelling.


Personal Names – Titles: Le Factbook capitalizes any valid
title (or short form of it) immediately preceding a person's name. A title
standing alone is lowercased. Examples: President PUTIN and President CLINTON
are chiefs of state. In Russia, the president is chief of state and the premier
is the head of the government, while in the US, the president is both chief of
state and head of government.

Petroleum: See entry for Crude oil.

Petroleum products: See entry for Crude oil.


Physicians density: This entry gives the number of medical doctors (physicians), including generalist and specialist medical practitioners,
per 1,000 of the population. Medical doctors are defined as doctors that study, diagnose, treat, and prevent illness, disease, injury, and
other physical and mental impairments in humans through the application of modern medicine. They also plan, supervise, and evaluate care and treatment plans by other health care providers.
The World Health Organization estimates that fewer than 2.3 health workers (physicians, nurses, and midwives only) per 1,000 would be insufficient to achieve coverage of primary healthcare needs.


Pipelines: This entry gives the lengths and types of pipelines for
transporting products like natural gas, crude oil, or petroleum products.


Political parties and leaders: This entry includes a listing of
significant political organizations and their leaders.


Political pressure groups and leaders: This entry includes a listing
of organizations with leaders involved in politics, but not standing for
legislative election.


Population: This entry gives an estimate from the US Bureau of the
Census based on statistics from population censuses, vital statistics
registration systems, or sample surveys pertaining to the recent past and on
assumptions about future trends. The total population presents one overall
measure of the potential impact of the country on the world and within its
region. Note: starting with the 1993 Factbook, demographic estimates for
some countries (mostly African) have explicitly taken into account the effects
of the growing impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. These countries are currently:
The Bahamas, Benin, Botswana, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burma, Burundi, Cambodia,
Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic
of the Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa,
Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.


Population below poverty line: National estimates of the percentage of
the population lying below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups,
with the results weighted by the number of people in each group. Definitions of
poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally
employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.


Population distribution: This entry provides a summary description of the population dispersion within a country. While it may suggest population density, it does not provide density figures.


Population growth rate: The average annual percent change in the
population, resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the
balance of migrants entering and leaving a country. The rate may be positive or
negative. The growth rate is a factor in determining how great a burden would be
imposed on a country by the changing needs of its people for infrastructure
(e.g., schools, hospitals, housing, roads), resources (e.g., food, water,
electricity), and jobs. Rapid population growth can be seen as threatening by
neighboring countries.


Ports and harbors: This entry lists the major ports and harbors
selected on the basis of overall importance to each country. This is determined
by evaluating a number of factors (e.g., dollar value of goods handled, gross
tonnage, facilities, military significance).


Ports and terminals: This entry lists major ports and terminals primarily
on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through the facilities on an annual
basis. In some instances, the number of containers handled or ship visits were also
considered.


Public debt: This entry records the cumulatiive total of all government borrowings
less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency. Public debt should not
be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the
private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings.


Radio broadcast stations: This entry includes the total number of AM,
FM, and shortwave broadcast stations.


Radios: This entry gives the total number of radio receivers.


Railways: This entry includes the total route length of the
railway network and component parts by gauge: broad, dual,
narrow, standard, et other.

Reference maps: This section includes world, regional, and special or
current interest maps.


Refined petroleum products – consumption: This entry is the country's total consumption of refined petroleum products, in barrels per day (bbl/day).
The discrepancy between the amount of refined petroleum products produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains,
and other complicating factors.


Refined petroleum products – exports: This entry is the country's total exports of refined petroleum products, in barrels per day (bbl/day).


Refined petroleum products – imports: This entry is the country's total imports of refined petroleum products, in barrels per day (bbl/day).


Refined petroleum products – production: This entry is the country's total output of refined petroleum products, in barrels per day (bbl/day).
The discrepancy between the amount of refined petroleum products produced and/or imported and the amount consumed and/or exported is due to the omission of stock changes, refinery gains,
and other complicating factors.


Refugees and internally displaced persons: This entry includes those persons
residing in a country as refugees or internally displaced persons (IDPs). The definition
of a refugee according to a United Nations Convention is "a person who is outside his/her
country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because
of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political
opinion; and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that
country, or to return there, for fear of persecution." The UN established the Office of
the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in 1950 to handle refugee matters worldwide.
The UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) has a
different, operational definition for a Palestinian refugee: "a person whose normal place
of residence was Palestine during the period 1 June 1946 to 15 May 1948 and who lost both
home and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 conflict." However, UNHCR also assists
some 400,000 Palestinian refugees not covered under the UNRWA definition. The term
"internally displaced person" is not specifically covered in the UN Convention; it is
used to describe people who have fled their homes for reasons similar to refugees, but
who remain within their own national territory and are subject to the laws of that state.


Religions: This entry is an ordered listing of religions by adherents starting with the largest group and sometimes includes the percent of total population. The core characteristics and beliefs of the world's major religions are described below.
Baha'i – Founded by Mirza Husayn-Ali (known as Baha'u'llah) in Iran in 1852, Baha'i faith emphasizes monotheism and believes in one eternal transcendent God. Its guiding focus is to encourage the unity of all peoples on the earth so that justice and peace may be achieved on earth. Baha'i revelation contends the prophets of major world religions reflect some truth or element of the divine, believes all were manifestations of God given to specific communities in specific times, and that Baha'u'llah is an additional prophet meant to call all humankind. Bahais are an open community, located worldwide, with the greatest concentration of believers in South Asia.
Buddhism – Religion or philosophy inspired by the 5th century B.C. teachings of Siddhartha Gautama (also known as Gautama Buddha "the enlightened one"). Buddhism focuses on the goal of spiritual enlightenment centered on an understanding of Gautama Buddha's Four Noble Truths on the nature of suffering, and on the Eightfold Path of spiritual and moral practice, to break the cycle of suffering of which we are a part. Buddhism ascribes to a karmic system of rebirth. Several schools and sects of Buddhism exist, differing often on the nature of the Buddha, the extent to which enlightenment can be achieved – for one or for all, and by whom – religious orders or laity.
Basic Groupings
Theravada Buddhism: The oldest Buddhist school, Theravada is practiced mostly in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, and Thailand, with minority representation elsewhere in Asia and the West. Theravadans follow the Pali Canon of Buddha's teachings, and believe that one may escape the cycle of rebirth, worldly attachment, and suffering for oneself; this process may take one or several lifetimes.
Mahayana Buddhism, including subsets Zen and Tibetan (Lamaistic) Buddhism: Forms of Mahayana Buddhism are common in East Asia and Tibet, and parts of the West. Mahayanas have additional scriptures beyond the Pali Canon and believe the Buddha is eternal and still teaching. Unlike Theravada Buddhism, Mahayana schools maintain the Buddha-nature is present in all beings and all will ultimately achieve enlightenment.
Hoa Hao: a minority tradition of Buddhism practiced in Vietnam that stresses lay participation, primarily by peasant farmers; it eschews expensive ceremonies and temples and relocates the primary practices into the home.
Christianity – Descending from Judaism, Christianity's central belief maintains Jesus of Nazareth is the promised messiah of the Hebrew Scriptures, and that his life, death, and resurrection are salvific for the world. Christianity is one of the three monotheistic Abrahamic faiths, along with Islam and Judaism, which traces its spiritual lineage to Abraham of the Hebrew Scriptures. Its sacred texts include the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament (or the Christian Gospels).
Basic Groupings
Catholicism (or Roman Catholicism): This is the oldest established western Christian church and the world's largest single religious body. It is supranational, and recognizes a hierarchical structure with the Pope, or Bishop of Rome, as its head, located at the Vatican. Catholics believe the Pope is the divinely ordered head of the Church from a direct spiritual legacy of Jesus' apostle Peter. Catholicism is comprised of 23 particular Churches, or Rites – one Western (Roman or Latin-Rite) and 22 Eastern. The Latin Rite is by far the largest, making up about 98% of Catholic membership. Eastern-Rite Churches, such as the Maronite Church and the Ukrainian Catholic Church, are in communion with Rome although they preserve their own worship traditions and their immediate hierarchy consists of clergy within their own rite. The Catholic Church has a comprehensive theological and moral doctrine specified for believers in its catechism, which makes it unique among most forms of Christianity.
Mormonism (including the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints): Originating in 1830 in the United States under Joseph Smith, Mormonism is not characterized as a form of Protestant Christianity because it claims additional revealed Christian scriptures after the Hebrew Bible and New Testament. The Book of Mormon maintains there was an appearance of Jesus in the New World following the Christian account of his resurrection, and that the Americas are uniquely blessed continents. Mormonism believes earlier Christian traditions, such as the Roman Catholic, Orthodox, and Protestant reform faiths, are apostasies and that Joseph Smith's revelation of the Book of Mormon is a restoration of true Christianity. Mormons have a hierarchical religious leadership structure, and actively proselytize their faith; they are located primarily in the Americas and in a number of other Western countries.
Jehovah's Witnesses structure their faith on the Christian Bible, but their rejection of the Trinity is distinct from mainstream Christianity. They believe that a Kingdom of God, the Theocracy, will emerge following Armageddon and usher in a new earthly society. Adherents are required to evangelize and to follow a strict moral code.
Orthodox Christianity: The oldest established eastern form of Christianity, the Holy Orthodox Church, has a ceremonial head in the Bishop of Constantinople (Istanbul), also known as a Patriarch, but its various regional forms (e.g., Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox) are autocephalous (independent of Constantinople's authority, and have their own Patriarchs). Orthodox churches are highly nationalist and ethnic. The Orthodox Christian faith shares many theological tenets with the Roman Catholic Church, but diverges on some key premises and does not recognize the governing authority of the Pope.
Protestant Christianity: Protestant Christianity originated in the 16th century as an attempt to reform Roman Catholicism's practices, dogma, and theology. It encompasses several forms or denominations which are extremely varied in structure, beliefs, relationship to state, clergy, and governance. Many protestant theologies emphasize the primary role of scripture in their faith, advocating individual interpretation of Christian texts without the mediation of a final religious authority such as the Roman Pope. The oldest Protestant Christianities include Lutheranism, Calvinism (Presbyterians), and Anglican Christianity (Episcopalians), which have established liturgies, governing structure, and formal clergy. Other variants on Protestant Christianity, including Pentecostal movements and independent churches, may lack one or more of these elements, and their leadership and beliefs are individualized and dynamic.
Hinduism – Originating in the Vedic civilization of India (second and first millennium B.C.), Hinduism is an extremely diverse set of beliefs and practices with no single founder or religious authority. Hinduism has many scriptures; the Vedas, the Upanishads, and the Bhagavad-Gita are among some of the most important. Hindus may worship one or many deities, usually with prayer rituals within their own home. The most common figures of devotion are the gods Vishnu, Shiva, and a mother goddess, Devi. Most Hindus believe the soul, or atman, is eternal, and goes through a cycle of birth, death, and rebirth (samsara) determined by one's positive or negative karma, or the consequences of one's actions. The goal of religious life is to learn to act so as to finally achieve liberation (moksha) of one's soul, escaping the rebirth cycle.
Islam – The third of the monotheistic Abrahamic faiths, Islam originated with the teachings of Muhammad in the 7th century. Muslims believe Muhammad is the final of all religious prophets (beginning with Abraham) and that the Qu'ran, which is the Islamic scripture, was revealed to him by God. Islam derives from the word submission, and obedience to God is a primary theme in this religion. In order to live an Islamic life, believers must follow the five pillars, or tenets, of Islam, which are the testimony of faith (shahada), daily prayer (salah), giving alms (zakah), fasting during Ramadan (sawm), and the pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj).
Basic Groupings
The two primary branches of Islam are Sunni and Shia, which split from each other over a religio-political leadership dispute about the rightful successor to Muhammad. The Shia believe Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali, was the only divinely ordained Imam (religious leader), while the Sunni maintain the first three caliphs after Muhammad were also legitimate authorities. In modern Islam, Sunnis and Shia continue to have different views of acceptable schools of Islamic jurisprudence, and who is a proper Islamic religious authority. Islam also has an active mystical branch, Sufism, with various Sunni and Shia subsets.
Sunni Islam accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim population. It recognizes the Abu Bakr as the first caliph after Muhammad. Sunni has four schools of Islamic doctrine and law – Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali – which uniquely interpret the Hadith, or recorded oral traditions of Muhammad. A Sunni Muslim may elect to follow any one of these schools, as all are considered equally valid.
Shia Islam represents 10-20% of Muslims worldwide, and its distinguishing feature is its reverence for Ali as an infallible, divinely inspired leader, and as the first Imam of the Muslim community after Muhammad. A majority of Shia are known as "Twelvers," because they believe that the 11 familial successor imams after Muhammad culminate in a 12th Imam (al-Mahdi) who is hidden in the world and will reappear at its end to redeem the righteous.
Variants
Ismaili faith: A sect of Shia Islam, its adherents are also known as "Seveners," because they believe that the rightful seventh Imam in Islamic leadership was Isma'il, the elder son of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq. Ismaili tradition awaits the return of the seventh Imam as the Mahdi, or Islamic messianic figure. Ismailis are located in various parts of the world, particularly South Asia and the Levant.
Alawi faith: Another Shia sect of Islam, the name reflects followers' devotion to the religious authority of Ali. Alawites are a closed, secretive religious group who assert they are Shia Muslims, although outside scholars speculate their beliefs may have a syncretic mix with other faiths originating in the Middle East. Alawis live mostly in Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey.
Druze faith: A highly secretive tradition and a closed community that derives from the Ismaili sect of Islam; its core beliefs are thought to emphasize a combination of Gnostic principles believing that the Fatimid caliph, al-Hakin, is the one who embodies the key aspects of goodness of the universe, which are, the intellect, the word, the soul, the preceder, and the follower. The Druze have a key presence in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel.
Jainism – Originating in India, Jain spiritual philosophy believes in an eternal human soul, the eternal universe, and a principle of "the own nature of things." It emphasizes compassion for all living things, seeks liberation of the human soul from reincarnation through enlightenment, and values personal responsibility due to the belief in the immediate consequences of one's behavior. Jain philosophy teaches non-violence and prescribes vegetarianism for monks and laity alike; its adherents are a highly influential religious minority in Indian society.
Judaism – One of the first known monotheistic religions, likely dating to between 2000-1500 B.C., Judaism is the native faith of the Jewish people, based upon the belief in a covenant of responsibility between a sole omnipotent creator God and Abraham, the patriarch of Judaism's Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh. Divine revelation of principles and prohibitions in the Hebrew Scriptures form the basis of Jewish law, or halakhah, which is a key component of the faith. While there are extensive traditions of Jewish halakhic and theological discourse, there is no final dogmatic authority in the tradition. Local communities have their own religious leadership. Modern Judaism has three basic categories of faith: Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform/Liberal. These differ in their views and observance of Jewish law, with the Orthodox representing the most traditional practice, and Reform/Liberal communities the most accommodating of individualized interpretations of Jewish identity and faith.
Shintoism – A native animist tradition of Japan, Shinto practice is based upon the premise that every being and object has its own spirit or kami. Shinto practitioners worship several particular kamis, including the kamis of nature, and families often have shrines to their ancestors' kamis. Shintoism has no fixed tradition of prayers or prescribed dogma, but is characterized by individual ritual. Respect for the kamis in nature is a key Shinto value. Prior to the end of World War II, Shinto was the state religion of Japan, and bolstered the cult of the Japanese emperor.
Sikhism – Founded by the Guru Nanak (born 1469), Sikhism believes in a non-anthropomorphic, supreme, eternal, creator God; centering one's devotion to God is seen as a means of escaping the cycle of rebirth. Sikhs follow the teachings of Nanak and nine subsequent gurus. Their scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib – also known as the Adi Granth – is considered the living Guru, or final authority of Sikh faith and theology. Sikhism emphasizes equality of humankind and disavows caste, class, or gender discrimination.
Taoism – Chinese philosophy or religion based upon Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching, which centers on belief in the Tao, or the way, as the flow of the universe and the nature of things. Taoism encourages a principle of non-force, or wu-wei, as the means to live harmoniously with the Tao. Taoists believe the esoteric world is made up of a perfect harmonious balance and nature, while in the manifest world – particularly in the body – balance is distorted. The Three Jewels of the Tao – compassion, simplicity, and humility – serve as the basis for Taoist ethics.
Zoroastrianism – Originating from the teachings of Zoroaster in about the 9th or 10th century B.C., Zoroastrianism may be the oldest continuing creedal religion. Its key beliefs center on a transcendent creator God, Ahura Mazda, and the concept of free will. The key ethical tenets of Zoroastrianism expressed in its scripture, the Avesta, are based on a dualistic worldview where one may prevent chaos if one chooses to serve God and exercises good thoughts, good words, and good deeds. Zoroastrianism is generally a closed religion and members are almost always born to Zoroastrian parents. Prior to the spread of Islam, Zoroastrianism dominated greater Iran. Today, though a minority, Zoroastrians remain primarily in Iran, India (where they are known as Parsi), and Pakistan.
Traditional beliefs
Animism: the belief that non-human entities contain souls or spirits.
Badimo: a form of ancestor worship of the Tswana people of Botswana.
Confucianism: an ideology that humans are perfectible through self-cultivation and self-creation; developed from teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius. Confucianism has strongly influenced the culture and beliefs of East Asian countries, including China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Vietnam.
Inuit beliefs are a form of shamanism (see below) based on animistic principles of the Inuit or Eskimo peoples.
Kirant: the belief system of the Kirat, a people who live mainly in the Himalayas of Nepal. It is primarily a form of polytheistic shamanism, but includes elements of animism and ancestor worship.
Pagan is a blanket term used to describe many unconnected belief practices throughout history, usually in reference to religions outside of the Abrahamic category (monotheistic faiths like Judaism, Christianity, and Islam).
Shamanism: beliefs and practices promoting communication with the spiritual world. Shamanistic beliefs are organized around a shaman or medicine man who – as an intermediary between the human and spirit world – is believed to be able to heal the sick (by healing their souls), communicate with the spirit world, and help souls into the afterlife through the practice of entering a trance. In shaman-based religions, the shaman is also responsible for leading sacred rites.
Spiritualism: the belief that souls and spirits communicate with the living usually through intermediaries called mediums.
Syncretic (fusion of diverse religious beliefs and practices)
Cao Dai: a nationalistic Vietnamese sect, officially established in 1926, that draws practices and precepts from Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, and Catholicism.
Chondogyo: or the religion of the Heavenly Way, is based on Korean shamanism, Buddhism, and Korean folk traditions, with some elements drawn from Christianity. Formulated in the 1860s, it holds that God lives in all of us and strives to convert society into a paradise on earth, populated by believers transformed into intelligent moral beings with a high social conscience.
Kimbanguist: a puritan form of the Baptist denomination founded by Simon Kimbangu in the 1920s in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo. Adherents believe that salvation comes through Jesus' death and resurrection, like Christianity, but additionally that living a spiritually pure life following strict codes of conduct is required for salvation.
Modekngei: a hybrid of Christianity and ancient Palauan culture and oral traditions founded around 1915 on the island of Babeldaob. Adherents simultaneously worship Jesus Christ and Palauan goddesses.
Rastafarian: an afro-centrist ideology and movement based on Christianity that arose in Jamaica in the 1930s; it believes that Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930-74, was the incarnation of the second coming of Jesus.
Santeria: practiced in Cuba, the merging of the Yoruba religion of Nigeria with Roman Catholicism and native Indian traditions. Its practitioners believe that each person has a destiny and eventually transcends to merge with the divine creator and source of all energy, Olorun.
Voodoo/Vodun: a form of spirit and ancestor worship combined with some Christian faiths, especially Catholicism. Haitian and Louisiana Voodoo, which have included more Catholic practices, are separate from West African Vodun, which has retained a focus on spirit worship.
Non-religious
Agnosticism: the belief that most things are unknowable. In regard to religion it is usually characterized as neither a belief nor non belief in a deity.
Atheism: the belief that there are no deities of any kind.


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: This entry gives the dollar value
for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary
authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date
of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold,
but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary
Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund.


Roadways: This entry gives the total length of the road network and includes
the length of the paved and unpaved portions.


Sanitation facility access: This entry provides information about access to improved or unimproved sanitation facilities available to segments of the population of a country.
Improved sanitation – use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush to a piped sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine; ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine;
pit latrine with slab; or a composting toilet. unimproved sanitation – use of any of the following facilities: flush or pour-flush not piped to a sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine;
pit latrine without a slab or open pit; bucket; hanging toilet or hanging latrine; shared facilities of any type; no facilities; or bush or field.


School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): School life expectancy (SLE) is the total number of years of schooling
(primary to tertiary) that a child can expect to receive, assuming that
the probability of his or her being enrolled in school at any
particular future age is equal to the current enrollment ratio at that
age.
Caution must be maintained when utilizing this indicator in
international comparisons. For example, a year or grade completed in
one country is not necessarily the same in terms of educational content
or quality as a year or grade completed in another country. SLE
represents the expected number of years of schooling that will be
completed, including years spent repeating one or more grades.


Sex ratio: This entry includes the number of males for each female in five age groups – at birth, under 15 years, 15-64 years, 65 years and over, and for the total population. Sex ratio at birth has recently emerged as an indicator of certain kinds of sex discrimination in some countries. For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due to a strong preference for sons. This will affect future marriage patterns and fertility patterns. Eventually, it could cause unrest among young adult males who are unable to find partners.


Stock of broad money: This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds,
short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments,
nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy. National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information.
Because of exchange rate movements, changes in money stocks measured in national currency units may vary significantly from those shown in US dollars,
and caution is urged when making comparisons over time in US dollars. In addition to serving as a medium of exchange, broad money includes assets that are slightly less liquid than narrow money
and the assets tend to function as a "store of value" – a means of holding wealth.


Stock of direct foreign investment – abroad: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in foreign countries made directly by residents – primarily companies –
of the home country, as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.


Stock of direct foreign investment – at home: This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents –
primarily companies – of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.


Stock of domestic credit: This entry is the total quantity of credit, denominated in the domestic
currency, provided by banks to nonbanking institutions. The national
currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing
exchange rate on the date of the information.


Stock of money: This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the total quantity of
currency in circulation (notes and coins) plus demand deposits
denominated in the national currency, held by nonbank financial
institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public
enterprises, and the private sector of the economy. The national
currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing
exchange rate on the date of the information.


Stock of narrow money: This entry, also know as "M1," comprises the total quantity of currency in circulation (notes and coins) plus demand deposits denominated
in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy,
measured at a specific point in time. National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information.
Because of exchange rate movements, changes in money stocks measured in national currency units may vary significantly from those shown in US dollars, and caution is urged
when making comparisons over time in US dollars. Narrow money consists of more liquid assets than broad money and the assets generally function as a "medium of exchange" for an economy.


Stock of quasi money: This entry comprises the total quantity of time and savings deposits
denominated in the national currency, held by nonbank financial
institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public
enterprises, and the private sector of the economy. When added together
with "M1" the total money supply is known as "M2." The national
currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing
exchange rate on the date of the information.


Suffrage: This entry gives the age at enfranchisement and whether the
right to vote is universal or restricted.


Taxes and other revenues: This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP.
Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs. Other revenues include social contributions – such as payments for social security
and hospital insurance – grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries,
and provides an average rate at which all income (GDP) is paid to the national level government for the supply of public goods and services.


Telephone numbers: All telephone numbers in the Factbook
consist of the country code in brackets, the city or area code (where required)
in parentheses, and the local number. The one component that is not presented is
the international access code, which varies from country to country. Pour
example, an international direct dial telephone call placed from the US to
Madrid, Spain, would be as follows:

011 (34) (1) 577-xxxx, where

011 is the international access code for station-to-station calls

(01 is for calls other than station-to-station calls),

(34) is the country code for Spain,

(1) is the city code for Madrid,

577 is the local exchange, and

xxxx is the local telephone number.

An international direct dial telephone call placed from another country to
the US would be as follows:

international access code + (1) (202) 939-xxxx, where

(1) is the country code for the US,

(202) is the area code for Washington, DC,

939 is the local exchange, and

xxxx is the local telephone number.


Telephone system: This entry includes a brief characterization of the
system with details on the domestic et international components.
The following terms and abbreviations are used throughout the entry:

Africa ONE – a fiber-optic submarine cable link encircling the
continent of Africa.

Arabsat – Arab Satellite Communications Organization (Riyadh, Saudi
Arabia).

Autodin – Automatic Digital Network (US Department of Defense).

CB – citizen's band mobile radio communications.

cellular telephone system – the telephones in this system are radio
transceivers, with each instrument having its own private radio frequency and
sufficient radiated power to reach the booster station in its area (cell), from
which the telephone signal is fed to a regular telephone exchange.

Central American Microwave System – a trunk microwave radio relay
system that links the countries of Central America and Mexico with each other.

coaxial cable – a multichannel communication cable consisting of a
central conducting wire, surrounded by and insulated from a cylindrical
conducting shell; a large number of telephone channels can be made available
within the insulated space by the use of a large number of carrier frequencies.

Comsat – Communications Satellite Corporation (US).

DSN – Defense Switched Network (formerly Automatic Voice Network or
Autovon); basic general-purpose, switched voice network of the Defense
Communications System (US Department of Defense).

Eutelsat – European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (Paris).

fiber-optic cable – a multichannel communications cable using a thread
of optical glass fibers as a transmission medium in which the signal (voice,
video, etc.) is in the form of a coded pulse of light.

GSM – a global system for mobile (cellular) communications devised by
the Groupe Special Mobile of the pan-European standardization organization,
Conference Europeanne des Posts et Telecommunications (CEPT) in 1982.

HF – high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to 30,000-kHz
range.

Inmarsat – International Mobile Satellite Organization (London);
provider of global mobile satellite communications for commercial, distress, and
safety applications at sea, in the air, and on land.

Intelsat – International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
(Washington, DC).

Intersputnik – International Organization of Space Communications
(Moscow); first established in the former Soviet Union and the East European
countries, it is now marketing its services worldwide with earth stations in
North America, Africa, and East Asia.

landline – communication wire or cable of any sort that is installed
on poles or buried in the ground.

Marecs – Maritime European Communications Satellite used in the
Inmarsat system on lease from the European Space Agency.

Marisat – satellites of the Comsat Corporation that participate in the
Inmarsat system.

Medarabtel – the Middle East Telecommunications Project of the
International Telecommunications Union (ITU) providing a modern
telecommunications network, primarily by microwave radio relay, linking Algeria,
Djibouti, Egypt, Jordan, Libya, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria,
Tunisia, and Yemen; it was initially started in Morocco in 1970 by the Arab
Telecommunications Union (ATU) and was known at that time as the Middle East
Mediterranean Telecommunications Network.

microwave radio relay – transmission of long distance telephone calls
and television programs by highly directional radio microwaves that are received
and sent on from one booster station to another on an optical path.

NMT – Nordic Mobile Telephone; an analog cellular telephone system
that was developed jointly by the national telecommunications authorities of the
Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden).

Orbita – a Russian television service; also the trade name of a
packet-switched digital telephone network.

radiotelephone communications – the two-way transmission and reception
of sounds by broadcast radio on authorized frequencies using telephone handsets.

PanAmSat – PanAmSat Corporation (Greenwich, CT).

satellite communication system – a communication system consisting of
two or more earth stations and at least one satellite that provides long
distance transmission of voice, data, and television; the system usually serves
as a trunk connection between telephone exchanges; if the earth stations are in
the same country, it is a domestic system.

satellite earth station – a communications facility with a microwave
radio transmitting and receiving antenna and required receiving and transmitting
equipment for communicating with satellites.

satellite link – a radio connection between a satellite and an earth
station permitting communication between them, either one-way (down link from
satellite to earth station – television receive-only transmission) or two-way
(telephone channels).

SHF – super-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 3,000- to
30,000-MHz range.

shortwave – radio frequencies (from 1.605 to 30 MHz) that fall above
the commercial broadcast band and are used for communication over long
distances.

Solidaridad – geosynchronous satellites in Mexico's system of
international telecommunications in the Western Hemisphere.

Statsionar – Russia's geostationary system for satellite
telecommunications.

submarine cable – a cable designed for service under water.

TAT – Trans-Atlantic Telephone; any of a number of high-capacity
submarine coaxial telephone cables linking Europe with North America.

telefax – facsimile service between subscriber stations via the public
switched telephone network or the international Datel network.

telegraph – a telecommunications system designed for unmodulated
electric impulse transmission.

telex – a communication service involving teletypewriters connected by
wire through automatic exchanges.

tropospheric scatter – a form of microwave radio transmission in which
the troposphere is used to scatter and reflect a fraction of the incident radio
waves back to earth; powerful, highly directional antennas are used to transmit
and receive the microwave signals; reliable over-the-horizon communications are
realized for distances up to 600 miles in a single hop; additional hops can
extend the range of this system for very long distances.

trunk network – a network of switching centers, connected by
multichannel trunk lines.

UHF – ultra-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 300- to
3,000-MHz range.

VHF – very-high-frequency; any radio frequency in the 30- to 300-MHz
range.


Telephones – fixed lines: This entry gives the total number of fixed telephone lines in use, as well as the number of subscriptions per 100 inhabitants.


Telephones – main lines in use: This entry gives the total number of
main telephone lines in use.


Telephones – mobile cellular: This entry gives the total number of
mobile cellular telephones in use.


Television – broadcast stations: This entry gives the total number of
separate broadcast stations plus any repeater stations.


Televisions: This entry gives the total number of television sets.


Terminology: Due to the highly structured nature of the
Factbook database, some collective generic terms have to be used. Pour
example, the word Country in the Country name entry refers to a
wide variety of dependencies, areas of special sovereignty, uninhabited islands,
and other entities in addition to the traditional countries or independent
states. Military is also used as an umbrella term for various civil
defense, security, and defense activities in many entries. Le
Independence entry includes the usual colonial independence dates and
former ruling states as well as other significant nationhood dates such as the
traditional founding date or the date of unification, federation, confederation,
establishment, or state succession that are not strictly independence dates.
Dependent areas have the nature of their dependency status noted in this same
entry.


Terrain: This entry contains a brief description of the
topography.


Terrorism: This category includes two fields: Terrorist groups – home based et Terrorist groups – foreign based. The category is by no means all inclusive; it only cites those terrorist organizations that appear on the US State Department's listing of Foreign Terrorist Organizations.


Terrorist groups – home based: This entry provides information on the US State Department's designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations headquartered in a specific country, which may or may not be a group's country of origin. Details on each organization's aim(s) and area(s) of operation are provided.


Terrorist groups – foreign based: This entry provides information on the US State Department's designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations operating in countries other than where a particular group is headquartered. Details on each organization's aim(s) and area(s) of operation are provided..


Total fertility rate: This entry gives a figure for the average number
of children that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end of their
childbearing years and bore children according to a given fertility rate at each
age. The total fertility rate is a more direct measure of the level of fertility
than the crude birth rate, since it refers to births per woman. This indicator
shows the potential for population growth in the country. High rates will also
place some limits on the labor force participation rates for women. Large
numbers of children born to women indicate large family sizes that might limit
the ability of the families to feed and educate their children.


Total renewable water resources: This entry provides the long-term average water availability for a country in cubic kilometers of precipitation, recharged ground water,
and surface inflows from surrounding countries. The values have been adjusted to account for overlap resulting from surface flow recharge of groundwater sources.
Total renewable water resources provides the water total available to a country but does not include water resource totals that have been reserved for upstream or downstream countries
through international agreements. Note that these values are averages and do not accurately reflect the total available in any given year.
Annual available resources can vary greatly due to short-term and long-term climatic and weather variations.


Trafficking in persons: Trafficking in persons is modern-day slavery, involving victims who are
forced, defrauded, or coerced into labor or sexual exploitation. Le
International Labor Organization (ILO), the UN agency charged with
addressing labor standards, employment, and social protection issues,
estimates that 12.3 million people worldwide are enslaved in forced
labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, sexual servitude, and
involuntary servitude at any given time. Human trafficking is a
multi-dimensional threat, depriving people of their human rights and
freedoms, risking global health, promoting social breakdown, inhibiting
development by depriving countries of their human capital, and helping
fuel the growth of organized crime. In 2000, the US Congress passed the
Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA), reauthorized in 2003 and
2005, which provides tools for the US to combat trafficking in persons,
both domestically and abroad. One of the law's key components is the
creation of the US Department of State's annual Trafficking in Persons Report, which assesses the government response (i.e., the current situation)
in some 150 countries with a significant number of victims trafficked
across their borders who are recruited, harbored, transported,
provided, or obtained for forced labor or sexual exploitation.
Countries in the annual report are rated in three tiers, based on
government efforts to combat trafficking. The countries identified in
this entry are those listed in the 2008 Trafficking in Persons Report as Tier 2 Watch List ou Tier 3 based on the following tier rating definitions:

Tier 2 Watch List countries do not fully comply with
the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but are making
significant efforts to do so, and meet one of the following criteria:

1. they display high or significantly increasing number of victims,

2. they have failed to provide evidence of increasing efforts to combat trafficking in persons, or,

3. they have committed to take action over the next year.


Transnational Issues: This category includes only two entries at the
present time – Disputes – international et Illicit drugs – that
deal with current issues going beyond national boundaries.

Transportation: This category includes the entries dealing with the
means for movement of people and goods.


Transportation – note: This entry includes miscellaneous
transportation information of significance not included elsewhere.


Unemployment rate: This entry contains the percent of the labor force
that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted.


Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: This entry gives the percent of the total labor force ages 15-24 unemployed during a specified year.

United Nations System: This information is presented in Appendix B:
United Nations System
as a chart, table, or text (depending on the
version of the Factbook) that shows the organization of the UN in detail.


Urbanization: This entry provides two measures of the degree of urbanization of a population. The first, urban population, describes the percentage of the total population living in urban areas, as defined by the country. The second, rate of urbanization,
describes the projected average rate of change of the size of the urban
population over the given period of time. Additionally, the World entry
includes a list of the ten largest urban agglomerations. An urban agglomeration
is defined as comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban
fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to,
the boundaries of the city.


Waterways: This entry gives the total length and individual names of
navigable rivers, canals, and other inland bodies of water.

Weights and measures: This information is presented in Appendix E:
Weights and Measures
and includes mathematical notations (mathematical
powers and names), metric interrelationships (prefix; symbol; length, weight, or
capacity; area; volume), and standard conversion factors.


Years: All year references are for the calendar year (CY) unless
indicated as fiscal year (FY). The calendar year is an accounting period of 12
months from 1 January to 31 December. The fiscal year is an accounting period of
12 months other than 1 January to 31 December.

Note: Information for the US and US dependencies was compiled from
material in the public domain and does not represent Intelligence Community
estimates.

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